2011). At the other extreme, weak signals can alter NVP-AEW541 datasheet neural oscillations through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (see HIRREM and EEG artifact or noise), whereby an increase in a neural system’s noise level can, perhaps counterintuitively, enable the detection of an otherwise subthreshold periodic signal (Moss et al. 2004; McDonnell and Ward 2011). Disturbances of synchronization of neural oscillation have been described Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in association with clinical disorders including epilepsy (Margineanu 2010), Parkinsonism (Gale et al. 2008), schizophrenia (Uhlhaas and Singer 2010), Alzheimer’s disease (Dauwels et al. 2010), autism (Isler et al. 2010),
and insomnia (Marzano et al. 2008). At the level of the cerebral hemispheres, oscillatory disturbances may manifest as imbalances of left–right EEG symmetry. Frontal EEG asymmetry Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has been described as a marker for affective style, with left and right frontal cortex associated with approach and withdrawal tendencies, respectively (Davidson et al. 1990). Other reports have associated hemispheric oscillatory asymmetry with posttraumatic stress disorder (Rabe et al. 2006;
Engdahl et al. 2010), insomnia (St-Jean et al., Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2012), attention-deficit disorder (Hale et al. 2010), autism (Stroganova et al. 2007; Lazarev et al. 2010), dyslexia (Spironelli et al. 2008), and schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Swanson et al. 2010). Whether there could be a physiologic disturbance common to these asymmetries has not been much
considered, but the hemispheric lateralization of management of the autonomic nervous system functioning (Yoon et al. 1997; Avnon et al. 2004; Craig 2005) – sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions by the right and left hemispheres, respectively – seems to raise the possibility that hemispheric oscillatory asymmetry may be an indicator of dysregulation of autonomic nervous system functioning. Given that neuronal populations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical oscillate over a range of low to high frequencies, it is also possible to describe neural oscillatory disturbances as suboptimal proportionation of spectral EEG power across those frequency ranges, usually discerned through comparison of average amplitudes of broadband EEG ranges Tolmetin (i.e., delta, 0.5–4 Hz; theta, 4–8 Hz; alpha, 8–12 Hz; beta, 12–30 Hz; gamma, >30 Hz). Attention-deficit spectrum disorders (Barry et al. 2003), mild cognitive impairment (Babiloni et al., 2010), dementia (Dauwels et al. 2010), and traumatic brain injury (Moeller et al. 2011) have been associated with relative excess power in low frequencies (i.e., delta and/or theta) in comparison with high frequencies. Other forms of suboptimal proportionation of spectral EEG power have been reported with insomnia (Perlis et al. 2001; Wolynczyk-Gmaj and Szelenberger 2011), alcoholism (Campanella et al. 2009), and chronic fatigue syndrome (Decker et al. 2009).