For 40 random spot urine samples, they reported a maximum urinary

For 40 random spot urine samples, they reported a maximum urinary concentration of 0.93 μg/l oxo-MPHP. Most of the currently available human biomonitoring data (summarized e.g., in Wittassek et al., 2007, Wittassek et al., 2011, Koch and Calafat, 2009 and Kasper-Sonnenberg selleck inhibitor et al., 2012) do not distinguish between oxidized C10

metabolites of DIDP/DINP and DPHP due to the limited chromatographic resolution of the HPLC–MS methodology applied. The C10-metabolite levels from these studies, however, indicate a cumulative C10-phthalate exposure (DINP/DIDP and DPHP) that is considerably higher than that for DPHP alone. Future studies using differential integration of specific DPHP metabolites next to the cumulative measurement of C10-phthalate metabolites have to confirm this finding. None for all authors

except for A. Langsch and R. Otter who both are employed by BASF SE, a producer of DPHP. Transparency Document. The study was carried out as part of a ten-year project on Vorinostat supplier human biomonitoring. The project is a cooperation agreed in 2010 between the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and the Verband der chemischen Industrie e.V. (German Chemical Industry Association – VCI); it is administered by the Federal Environment Agency (UBA). The study aims to characterize suitable biomarkers for human biomonitoring and to develop a new analytical method based upon these biomarkers and was funded by the German Chemicals Industry. Experts from government authorities, industry and science accompany the project in selecting substances and developing methods. “
“The chlorophenoxy compounds 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are selective herbicides used in agricultural and household sectors worldwide. 2,4-D is the most commonly used chlorophenoxy herbicide in the US (Kiely et al., 2004) and acute self-poisoning with MCPA is a common reason for presentation to rural hospitals in Sri Lanka where subsistence farming is common (Roberts et al., 2005). Severe poisoning including coma, rhabdomyolysis

and renal toxicity may occur and persist for some days. Death occurs in around 5% of patients and is typically 24–48 h post-ingestion ifenprodil (Roberts et al., 2005). The mechanism of fatal toxicity has not been defined (Roberts et al., 2005). Animal studies have also suggested that prolonged elimination of chlorophenoxy herbicides leads to increased toxicity (Timchalk, 2004). Further, saturation of protein binding increases the free (unbound) concentration of the poison, which is then available to distribute from the plasma (central) compartment. In the case of chlorophenoxy compounds, this is important because the mechanism of toxicity is thought to relate to disruption of intracellular processes (Roberts and Buckley, 2007a).

, 2008, Hagens sell

, 2008, Hagens Proteases inhibitor et al., 2007 and Huang et al., 2008). Such distribution is followed by rapid clearance from the systemic circulation, predominantly by action of the liver and spleenic macrophages ( Moghimi et al., 2005). Clearance and opsonization of nanoparticles depends on size and surface characteristics ( Curtis et al., 2006 and Moghimi et al., 2005). Differential opsonization translates into variations in clearance rates and macrophage sequestration of nanoparticles ( Moghimi et al., 2005). To increase the passive retention of nanomaterials in systemic circulation, the suppression of opsonization

events is necessary at desired sites or anatomical compartments. For example in case of

hydrophobic particles, a coating with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), would increase their hydrophilicity, hence increasing the systemic circulation time ( Garnett and Kallinteri, 2006). In another study with PEGylated (Polyethylene glycol coated) gold nanoparticles Myllynen et al. (2008) observed that 10–30 nm sized particles did not see more cross the perfused human placenta and were not detected in fetal circulation. A study by Takenaka et al. (2001) carried out in rats revealed that inhaled ultrafine silver nanoparticles were distributed in liver, lungs and brain. The authors have shown considerable amount of silver could be detected in rat brain following inhalation of silver nanoparticles. Dapagliflozin Few other studies with Inhaled nanoparticles demonstrate distribution of particles to the lungs, liver, heart, kidney, spleen and brain (BeruBe et al., 2007, Hagens et al., 2007, Medina et al., 2007 and Oberdorster

et al., 2002) and clearance via phagocytosis in the alveolar region by macrophages ( Curtis et al., 2006, Garnett and Kallinteri, 2006 and Oberdorster et al., 2005b). In addition, at least one clinical report has associated impaired liver function to silver nanoparticles released from a wound dressing ( Trop et al., 2006). Jong et al. (2008) demonstrated size dependent tissue distribution of gold nanoparticles with the smallest (10 nm) nanoparticles showing the most widespread distribution (blood, liver, spleen, kidney, testis, thymus, heart, lung and brain) whereas the larger particles (50, 100 and 250 nm) were detected only in blood, liver and spleen. In another study on biodistribution of gold nanoparticles, Niidome et al. (2006), detected most of gold stabilized with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the liver whereas 54% of PEG-modified gold nanoparticles were found in blood at 0.5 h after intravenous injection. Owing to characteristic internalization and systemic distribution of inorganic and polymeric nanoparticles, there is a growing interest in exploring their uses for imaging, systemic delivery of drugs, target specific killing of cancerous cells etc.

During oral history interviews they have identified that low inco

During oral history interviews they have identified that low incomes and lack of access to credit to invest in alternative livelihood activities are two key barriers. Per capita household income is only around 21,000 TK/year in the two communities (Table 1). To express the level of income, access

to credit and desire to divert away from fishing, an oral history interviewee (fisherman) from Padma said “I am poor and do not have sufficient access to credit… fishing in the sea is risky. If I had money I would do business inland as there is no risk on life there”. Padma’s boat owners have limited access to formal credit. Household questionnaires indicate that formal sources of credit (banks and NGOs micro-credit) provide only 8% of the credit needed in fishing businesses and charge an interest rate of between 16 and 35% per year. Due to lack of access to formal credit with low interest, the boat owners invest their own savings (provide 12% of total credit) TGF-beta inhibitor and take informal Alpelisib concentration credit with high interest rates to run their businesses. Local informal money lenders provide 18% of the credit but charge 100% interest per year. Dadondars (another type of informal money lender) provide 62% of the credit but charge 2% on

fish revenue equating to an interest rate of between 120 and 240% per year, indirectly. Oral history interviewees from Padma emphasise that they need to catch substantial amounts of fish during the fishing season to repay the credit and interest and to gain some profit. Catching substantial amounts of fish requires completing most of the fishing trips even in cyclonic conditions, which increases exposure to cyclones and the chance of loss of boats, gear and life. To minimise the loss of boats and gear, the boat owners in Padma minimise capital investment. Most fishermen said in oral history interviews that boat owners use cheaper and less durable materials

to make boats, cheaper and less powerful engines, and do not provide life jackets or modern equipment. This strategy can be treated as maladaptation as it reinforces technological barriers and increases risks for the fishermen. In contrast Kutubdia Para’s boat owners have better access to 4��8C formal credit. Household questionnaires suggest that boat owners in Kutubdia Para obtain credit for running fishing businesses from the same sources as Padma. However, in Kutubdia Para, formal, own savings and informal sources provide 42%, 18% and 40% of total credit, respectively. This means that the boat owners do not need to rely mainly on informal credit with higher rates of interest but have better access to formal credit with much lower interest rates. Abandonment of few fishing trips due to cyclonic weather does not create a problem for them to repay the credit and interest, and to gain some profit. This is one of the reasons why the boat-owners in Kutubdia Para do not induce fishermen catching fish in cyclonic conditions and do not reduce capital investment.

The findings of this study on Egypt DA-HAI rates form an integral

The findings of this study on Egypt DA-HAI rates form an integral part of the INICC and reflect the outcome and process surveillance data that were systematically collected. The study was carried out in 3 ICUs in three hospitals in two cities in Egypt from December 2008

to July 2010. Each hospital had an infection control team (ICT) with a physician, an infection control practitioner (ICP) with at least one year of experience in infection control (Table 1) and a microbiology laboratory to perform in vitro susceptibility testing of clinical isolates using standardized methods. Every hospital’s institutional review board agreed to the study protocol. Patient PCI-32765 mw confidentiality was protected by codifying the recorded information, making it identifiable only to the ICT. The INICC surveillance program includes two components: outcome surveillance (DA-HAI rates and their adverse effects) and process surveillance (adherence to hand hygiene and other basic preventive infection control practices) [16]. Investigators were required to complete outcome and process surveillance forms at their hospitals, which were then sent to the INICC headquarters office in Buenos NLG919 Aires for their monthly analysis. The INICC surveillance program applies methods

and definitions for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the NNIS/NHSN program [6] and [17]; however, the INICC methods have been adapted to the setting of developing countries due to their different socioeconomic status and specific resource limitations [16]. Outcome surveillance includes the rates of CLAB, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) per 1000 device-days, the microorganism profile, and the length of stay and

mortality in ICUs. The infection control and prevention strategies implemented in INICC member hospitals are based on inexpensive and basic evidence-based measures, including outcome surveillance, process surveillance, education and Fluorometholone Acetate performance feedback on outcome surveillance and process surveillance [18], [19], [20] and [21]. Process surveillance was designed to assess compliance with easily measurable key infection control practices, such as surveillance of compliance rates for hand hygiene practices and specific measures for the prevention of CLAB, CAUTI and VAP [16]. Hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers (HCWs), based on the frequency with which hand hygiene is performed when clearly indicated, is monitored by the ICP during randomly selected 1-h observation periods three times per week. Although HCWs are aware that hand hygiene practices are regularly monitored, they are not informed of the schedule for hand hygiene observations.

Nos doentes

com doença inflamatória intestinal sob tratam

Nos doentes

com doença inflamatória intestinal sob tratamento com infliximab, além da vigilância clínica e analítica da atividade da doença, é desejável monitorizar o tratamento através da avaliação da sua CX-5461 solubility dmso concentração sérica e do doseamento dos anticorpos anti-infliximab, o que permitirá decisão mais fundamentada da opção de ajuste terapêutico. Este controlo seriado permite antecipar condições que comportem maior risco de perda de eficácia terapêutica. Os autores declaram que para esta investigação não se realizaram experiências em seres humanos e/ou animais. Os autores declaram ter seguido os protocolos de seu centro de trabalho acerca da publicação dos dados de pacientes e que todos os pacientes incluídos no estudo receberam informações suficientes e deram o seu consentimento informado por escrito para participar nesse estudo. Os autores declaram ter recebido consentimento escrito dos pacientes e/ou sujeitos mencionados no artigo. O autor para correspondência deve estar na posse deste documento. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“A ecoendoscopia (EE) permite avaliar toda a espessura da parede gastrointestinal e discriminar as suas diferentes camadas histológicas através

da respetiva correspondência ultrassonográfica, assumindo um papel único na caracterização das lesões parietais e no estadiamento loco-regional das neoplasias gastrointestinais (Ecoendoscopia digestiva na prática clínica – avaliação da parede gastrointestinal, GE 2011 vol.18). As outras selleck products indicações advêm da sua capacidade de fornecer imagens de

alta resolução das estruturas adjacentes à parede digestiva, nomeadamente do pâncreas. A possibilidade de posicionar o transdutor muito próximo da área pancreática minimiza os efeitos de artefacto que são produzidos pela interposição de ar luminal digestivo, que constituem uma das principais limitações da abordagem ultrassonográfica transparietal convencional. As Y-27632 concentration sondas de alta frequência utilizadas fornecem imagens de alta resolução espacial, permitindo identificar estruturas milimétricas. A opção pela modalidade de abordagem linear ou radial depende das particularidades anátomo-clínicas a avaliar, da experiência do operador e da disponibilidade do equipamento. No entanto, é aceite que a ecoendoscopia linear permite uma melhor caracterização de alguns detalhes anatómicos do pâncreas, além de proporcionar a colheita de material para cito-histologia através de punção aspirativa com agulha fina (PAAF). Desde a sua introdução, em 1992, que a punção aspirativa com agulha fina guiada por ecoendoscopia (PAAF-EE) se tem evidenciado como um procedimento eficaz e seguro, encontrando-se atualmente incluída em grande parte dos algoritmos de diagnóstico e estadiamento de lesões pancreáticas.

First, as indicated, other than in a crude fashion, active ingred

First, as indicated, other than in a crude fashion, active ingredients were generally not identified. At best, hours of treatment dedicated to a listed deficit (gait, attention, etc) were captured 3 Methyladenine and, even where the active ingredient was identified and isolated, it was not quantified other than indirectly, using the assumption that hours dedicated to a particular treatment correspond very closely to the units of the ingredient delivered.82 If we consider that the essential

or other ingredients may include goal setting, providing feedback, and transferring of factual knowledge, it should be clear that the claim that time corresponds with quantity of ingredients is a tenuous one. Once we have solved the problem of how to fruitfully classify rehabilitation treatments, Vemurafenib supplier the next predicament will be how to operationalize the quantity of those treatments and to develop systems of measurement that, in practice, maybe feasible only for the most well-funded research projects. The efforts described in the preceding sections are far from offering an integrated, complete, and useful taxonomy of rehabilitation interventions; however, they may contribute building

blocks to such an effort. Whether a rehabilitation taxonomy is created predominantly deductively or inductively, it needs to specify interventions (treatments, techniques, technologies, practices, approaches) because these are the links between patient diagnoses (in medical terminology) or client problems and goals (in

behavioral terminology) and patient/client outcomes.57 and 102 In contrast buy Verteporfin with the “bottom-up,” inductive approach to rehabilitation treatment classifications used by PBE and similar studies, a “top-down,” deductive approach would start with a well-developed and validated treatment theory (or a set of midrange treatment theories18) and might use expert opinion to identify those treatments that fit in this theory, that is, interventions that offer or include the active ingredient(s) the theory specifies as a necessary and potentially sufficient treatment for the deficits or problems experienced by categories of patients.10, 18 and 25 Although no systematic approach to such a theory-driven taxonomy has been published, we have put forth what we consider to be the essential elements of treatment theories: the outcomes that may be expected to be affected by treatments that are based on a specific theory, the essential and other ingredients that are contained in those treatments, and the mechanism(s) of action that connect ingredients to outcomes.13 and 61 Characteristics of the patients/clients involved may be moderators of the causal pathway leading from treatment to outcome.25 The series of articles in the current supplement specifies further characteristics of a theory-driven system for classifying rehabilitation interventions.

Estes estudos reforçam os resultados preliminares do trabalho pub

Estes estudos reforçam os resultados preliminares do trabalho publicado por Rita Carvalho e col, os quais sugerem que uma intervenção personalizada por pessoal de enfermagem no ensino da preparação para colonoscopia é eficaz na obtenção de uma preparação intestinal adequada à realização

dos exames. Aguardamos a prossecução do estudo, conforme estava programado, com a inclusão do número de doentes que foi considerado necessário para a obtenção de conclusões com maior peso estatístico. “
“A hepatite B é um problema grave de saúde pública, sendo a principal causa de cirrose hepática em todo o mundo. Estima-se que mais de um terço da população mundial tenha tido contacto com o vírus da hepatite B (VHB) e que 350 milhões sejam portadores crónicos1. Destes, aproximadamente BKM120 15%-40% desenvolverão cirrose hepática ou carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC), sendo estas complicações responsáveis pela morte de cerca de 600 000 pessoas por ano2, além de uma redução na qualidade de vida e de um significativo acréscimo de custos3 and 4. Neste âmbito, é crucial determinar quais as formas mais eficazes e eficientes, do ponto de vista económico, para tratar a hepatite B crónica (HBC). Em Portugal, de acordo com os resultados do 2.° Dactolisib manufacturer Inquérito

Serológico Nacional, realizado em 2000-2001 numa amostra de 1095 indivíduos, a estimativa da prevalência da infecção pelo VHB era de 0,36%5. Embora next desconhecendo-se com precisão os valores atuais, estima-se que a prevalência atual se possa encontrar entre 1,0 e 1,5%6. A este respeito é de salientar o impacto da comunidade imigrante oriunda de países onde a prevalência é mais elevada6. De acordo com as notificações remetidas à Direção-Geral de Saúde, no âmbito das

doenças de declaração obrigatória, a incidência notificada foi de 0,4 casos por 100 000 habitantes, em 20067, e de 0,67, em 20098. O impacto económico da doença não foi, até à data, formalmente analisado no contexto português. Em Espanha, Idris et al. 3 estimam que o não tratamento dos 111 000 doentes com HBC ativa implica 1,84 mil milhões de euros em cuidados de saúde a prestar a estes doentes nos próximos 20 anos. Dada a inexistência de levantamento epidemiológico atual em Portugal, é difícil estimar diferenças ou semelhanças entre os 2 países, não obstante podermos considerar que, devido às diferenças nos respetivos Planos Nacionais de Vacinação e nos contextos migratórios, existirão diferenças entre as 2 realidades. Em Portugal, assumindo uma prevalência de 0,36% na população adulta 5 e uma percentagem de 22% com doença ativa entre os portadores 3, haverá cerca de 6500 indivíduos a necessitar de tratamento.

It has been shown

that stimuli presented in the upper hem

It has been shown

that stimuli presented in the upper hemifield (above fixation) elicit much larger P1 amplitudes than those presented in the lower hemifield (e.g., Gunter et al. 1994). These and related findings (see also Section 2.3.1 and e.g., Danckert and Goodale, 2001, Handy et al., 2003 and Kenemans et al., 2000) suggest that different hemifields are dominant for and interact Neratinib concentration with the processing of different stimulus features. In the preceding section, it was argued that the P1 is not affected by stimulus properties per se. In other words, the assumption is that the P1 is not a sensory evoked component. But what are the defining properties of a sensory evoked component? Here, two properties are emphasized. A sensory evoked component is generated in response to a stimulus by a (i) feed-forward, bottom-up process, that is (ii) primarily of excitatory

nature. A variety of more recent findings obtained with voltage sensitive dyes emphasize the existence of feed-forward, excitatory processes in V1 and complex feedback activation processes between V1 and ‘higher’ cortical regions. The interesting point here is that feedback to V1 is evident already at (but not before) about 100 ms poststimulus (for a review, cf. Roland, 2010). These findings suggest that in the cortex, excitatory feed-forward processes dominate in a period of up to 100 ms, whereas a complex interplay between feed-forward and feedback activation processes (occurring in parallel) characterizes the time period beyond 100 ms. Based on these findings, selleck compound we suggest that sensory evoked processes can be considered excitatory neuronal activation processes that dominate in a period of up to about 100 ms poststimulus. It was already emphasized that the large ipsilateral P1 that is observed in spatial cueing tasks most likely reflects an inhibitory process. A large component appearing over task irrelevant brain regions is not what one would expect for an excitatory, sensory evoked component.

In the next sections we will provide further evidence for the assumption that the Oxymatrine P1 component reflects inhibitory processes. If this assumption can be validated, this would provide strong evidence against the view that the P1 is sensory evoked. The reason is that an evoked component can hardly be considered inhibitory of nature. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that the P1 reflects an inhibitory feedback wave from ‘higher’ cortical areas that operates as an inhibitory filter to control feed-forward sensory processes. The aim here is to explain the functionality of the P1 on the basis of the inhibition timing hypothesis, which we have applied for the interpretation of alpha oscillations (Klimesch et al., 2007a, Klimesch et al., 2007b and Klimesch et al., 2007c). If the amplitudes of an inhibitory oscillation (e.g., an oscillation, generated by inhibitory interneurons) are increased, the time window, in which action potentials (APs) are elicited in target cells, becomes increasingly smaller.

All subjects were not taking any type of medication The PBMC iso

All subjects were not taking any type of medication. The PBMC isolation was made by the difference of gradient density Ficoll-Hypaque (Histopaque®, Sigma–Aldrich-USA)

1077. After centrifugation (400 × g; 30 min at room temperature), the PBMC were found at the plasma/1077 interphase and collected carefully with a Pasteur pipette. After that, the cells were washed in PBS twice (240 × g for 10 min), and resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium containing 4.5 g/L glucose supplemented with 2 mM l-glutamine, penicillin/streptomycin (50 IU/mL and 50 μg/mL, respectively) and 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS). The human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were subcultured in a 75 cm2 flasks in Dulbecco’s Fulvestrant purchase modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 2 mM l-glutamine, penicillin/streptomycin (50 IU/mL and 50 μg/mL, respectively) and 10% (v/v) FBS. HepG2 cells and PBMC were maintained at 37 °C in a 5% CO2/air incubator (Thermo Electron Co.) and verified in an inverted microscope (Nikon Eclipse Ti, Japan). To analyze the cytotoxicity effects of AuNps, HepG2 cells and PBMC were incubated with AuNps-citrate

and AuNps-PAMAM. Control experiments containing only PAMAM in the culture medium have also been performed. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The genotoxicity was measured by the many alkaline comet assay.

Viability of the cells exposed to AuNps was also determined by the trypan blue exclusion assay, immediately before all the assays (Freshney, 2000). In a see more viable cell, trypan blue dye (Sigma–Aldrich, USA) is not absorbed. The number of viable cells was always >90% for each cell suspension in both control and treated groups before the assays. Cytotoxicity was also determinated using MTT assay (Mosmann, 1983), a method for determining cell viability by measuring the mitochondrial dehydrogenase action. This enzyme reduces MTT to water-insoluble blue formazan crystals. Cells were counted and plated (1 × 105 cells/well) in 96-well culture plates and allowed to adhere (HepG2) or stabilization (PBMC) at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere for 24 h. The freshly prepared AuNps-PAMAM and AuNps-citrate were dispersed in cell culture medium, diluted at concentrations from 0.01 to 50.0 μM and were added to each culture well. Doxorubicin (DXR) was used as the positive control and analyzed at the concentration of 0.3 μM. DXR is an antitumor agent that acts by intercalating the DNA. It is rapidly taken up into the nucleus of cells, inhibiting DNA synthesis, binding with high affinity to DNA by classical intercalation between base pairs, promoting single strand breaks in DNA and inhibiting DNA topoisomerase II (Cutts et al., 2005). A negative control containing only cells in culture medium was also evaluated.

The dorsal part of the stratum sagittale externum

is cove

The dorsal part of the stratum sagittale externum

is covered by a cap that appears darker compared to the surrounding fibres. These lighter fibres are the anterior remnant of the stratum transversum cunei, which will disappear more interiorly together with the cuneus. 5. (Enlargement 9/8) This cut is located approximately 5mm anterior to the previous, approximately 65mm away from the occipital pole, and only few millimetre before the posterior part of the corpus callosum. This section therefore covers entirely the parietal lobe. The remnant of the cuneus that was still visible on the previous section has now disappeared and made room for the descending part of the cingulate gyrus (VIII.). Dorsal to this the precuneus (IX) is cut along its largest diameter. With regards to the fissures on the convexity, the interparietal sulcus (i.) is cut diagonally and the ascending branch of the parallel sulcus (e.) is cut longitudinally. Underneath the latter one can appreciate the transversely cut second and third temporal sulcus. On the basal aspect one can see selleckchem the collateral sulcus again the indents the stratum externum and on the border to the inferior medial aspect the anterior and shared part of the calcarine fissure with the occipito-parietal sulcus (f.c.). The basal aspect is reduced in size

in relation to the other two as well as in its absolute diameter and its direction got closer to the medial surface, meaning it is more vertical. The convexity on the other hand is approaching the hemispheric midline inferior just as it always has done superiorly. As a consequence of these dramatic changes in the arrangement of the gross anatomy the subcortical anatomy of the white matter and the occipital horn is rendered. The occipital horn gained in width and height and has four walls as it did on the previous section. Amongst these walls the inferior one is very thin and corresponds to the lateral Adenosine part of the inferior wall from the previous section. The medial part with the adjacent collateral

sulcus is now the medial wall. The dorsal wall is, similar to the previous section but more prominently indented due to the dorsal forceps part. This section shows the transition of the occipital horn into the lateral ventricles. The dorsal (1.) and ventral (2.) forceps part gained in volume. The ventral part projects dorsal along the inner surface of the occipital horn and is therefore only separated from the dorsal part by a thin gap. The fibres of the inner forceps layer merged with it. Additionally fibres originating from the inferior convexity are joining the forceps via the medial wall of the occipital horn. Likewise the dorsal forceps part gains volume from the now prominent layer of fibres that are ascending vertically along the lateral surface of the occipital horn (3.).