After sleep deprivation, hormone-treated males and females exhibi

After sleep deprivation, hormone-treated males and females exhibited similar amounts of recovery sleep however males Selleckchem Quisinostat exhibited slightly more sleep than placebo-treated controls. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the androgens and estrogens are primarily responsible for sex differences in baseline sleep-wake amount but do not have substantial effects on homeostatic sleep rebound after extended wakefulness. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Malnutrition is a common complication in patients on dialysis and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. Effective therapy could substantially

improve morbidity and mortality, but neither enteral nor parenteral supplementation provide long-term benefit because of the strong appetite EPZ-6438 supplier suppression seen in such patients. We performed a double-blinded randomized crossover study of a week-long treatment with daily subcutaneous ghrelin, a gut hormone that

regulates hunger through the hypothalamus, in a group of 12 malnourished dialysis patients. Ghrelin administration increased ghrelin levels in circulation, modestly reduced blood pressure for up to 2 h, and immediately and significantly increased appetite, with an increase in energy intake noted at the first study meal. Persistence of this effect throughout the week was confirmed with food diaries and final study meals. Energy expenditure, measured with free-living pulse and motion monitors, was unchanged by ghrelin. Our study shows that daily treatment with ghrelin Lepirudin achieves a sustained positive change in energy balance in malnourished dialysis

patients. Direct manipulation of appetite with ghrelin or its analogs represents an attractive and promising therapeutic strategy for this difficult clinical problem. Kidney International (2009) 76, 199-206; doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.114; published online 22 April 2009″
“Nitric oxide [NO] is known to have vasoregulatory, neuroprotective and blood-brain barrier (BBB) related transport functions in the human CNS. Altered NO levels are suspected of contributing to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). NO is produced as a result of the activity of one or more of three isoforms of nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS). In this study we compared Alzheimer and normative comparison brain samples, from temporal and calcarine cortices, with respect to the interactive correlation between eNOS, iNOS and nNOS isoform positive capillaries and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile plaques (SPs). Cortical samples were taken from the superior temporal and calcarine cortices of 10 confirmed AD and 10 non-demented comparison group (CG) brains. Contiguous coronal sections were stained using immunohistochemistry techniques to stain for tau protein, beta amyloid (A beta) n-termini([40 and 42]), eNOS, iNOS and nNOS. The densities of NFTs, SPs, and eNOS, iNOS and nNOS positive capillaries were recorded.

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