However, further investigation of the immune cells involved in th

However, further investigation of the immune cells involved in this type of liver injury following elevated production of IL-1β and IL-18 has not been documented. A substantial number of neutrophils infiltrate the liver after acetaminophen challenge.11, 12 Neutrophils play an important

role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury, although controversy exists regarding their precise contributions.13 In addition, IL-1β has been reported to be dispensable in the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver and to play a protective Selleckchem Cobimetinib role in the liver injury.14, 15 The mechanism by which neutrophils infiltrate the liver remains unclear. IL-17A was discovered by Rouvier et al.16 and was named cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated serine esterase-8. T helper (Th)17 cells are recognized as the primary source of IL-17A.17

However, additional innate immune cell populations have been shown to secrete IL-17A, including γδ T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and neutrophils.18 The receptor for IL-17A is expressed on various types of cells, such as endothelial cells, macrophages, and stromal cells. These cells produce diverse proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to IL-17 to mediate inflammation and induce granulopoiesis and neutrophil recruitment to inflammatory sites.19 γδ T Rapamycin solubility dmso cells are a component of the innate immune cell population and play important roles during physiological processes, such as defense against pathogens, tumor surveillance, and regulation of immune responses through cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-4,

IL-10, TGF-β, or IL-17A).20 Unlike conventional αβ T cells, IFN-γ- or IL-17A-producing-γδ T cells are stably divided into two subsets during development in the thymus.21 Recent studies have demonstrated that γδ T cells play an important role in infectious and autoimmune diseases in an IL-17A-dependent manner. IL-17A-producing γδ T cells protect against Listeria monocytogenes infection in the murine liver22 and are pathogenic in collagen-induced arthritis.23 However, in the progression of acetaminophen-induced liver injury, whether γδ T cells produce IL-17A, how γδ T cells would produce IL-17A, and whether IL-17A induces neutrophil recruitment and expansion have not been investigated. Necrotic hepatocytes release many types of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), heat shock proteins, DNA, and cyclophilin A.10, 24, 25 Extracellular HMGB1 acts through multiple receptors, including TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and the receptor for advanced glycation end products.26 Many cell populations, such as macrophages and endothelial cells, can respond to stimulation with HMGB1.27 HMGB1 has been shown to play an important role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.28 Blocking HMGB1 with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) attenuates liver injury.29 In addition to acetaminophen-induced liver injury, HMGB1 also contributes to other liver diseases.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>