However, in the scientific literature relating health to work per

However, in the scientific literature relating health to work performance and productivity, these are sometimes treated

as synonymous concepts, and thus, self-reports are also frequently used to measure productivity (Brouwer et al. 1999; Hagberg et al. 2007; Martimo et al. 2010). Work performance and work productivity, as well as their potential associations and antecedents have previously been addressed in the literature. For instance, one study among computer users with musculoskeletal symptoms found a reduction in productivity by approximately 15 % for women and 13 % for men (Hagberg et al. 2002). Another study among trade firm employees showed a reduction

in productivity both before and after a sick leave period by 25 and Selleck LY2090314 20 %, respectively (Brouwer et al. 2002). With respect to adverse psychosocial conditions, results from previous studies suggest that high job strain is associated with decreased work performance and productivity loss (Hagberg et al. 2007; Martimo et al. 2009). Regarding the impact of mental disorders on work performance and productivity, results from a large cohort study in the US workforce have indicated a close relationship between clinical depression and productivity loss (Stewart et al. 2003a). Also, sleep disturbances, pain and negative perceptions regarding the influence of pain on work have been found to be associated with these outcomes (Hagberg et al. 2007; Martimo et al. 2010). The concept work ability can be defined as the result of the interaction of the worker and his/her work (Ilmarinen 2004). Work ability could also be described as

the balance of the workers’ resources and the work demands in terms of how well the worker at present Bupivacaine and in the near future, is able to perform his/her work with respect to the work demands and his/her health and mental resources (Ilmarinen 2004). Work ability is, according to a large European study, strongly associated with both physical and mental well-being (Radkiewics 2005). Several risk factors for reduced work ability have previously been identified, and in a recent review, both work-related factors like high mental work demands, poor physical work environment and lack of autonomy, and individual factors like poor musculoskeletal capacity, older age and lack of leisure time physical activity were found to be associated with poor work ability (van den Berg et al. 2009). Hence, since both musculoskeletal pain conditions and mental disorders have been proposed to be major risk factors for reduced productivity, work ability and work performance in cross-sectional studies (Stewart et al. 2003a, 2003c).

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