Note the bacteria surrounded by toluidine blue-stained gums (ep)

Note the bacteria surrounded by toluidine blue-stained gums. (ep) epidermis. (e) Transversal section showing TSE and TSN mutants colonizing the leaf blade. Note the plant gums which restrict the intercellular spreading of the bacterial mutants (black arrow). (f) Transversal section of localized areas densely colonized by the mutants (white arrows) showing minor anatomical changes compared with panels (a) and (c). Note the reduced numbers

and Alisertib manufacturer size of the bundle sheath chloroplasts (black arrow). (g) Transmission electron microscopy of the mutant bacteria colonizing the intercellular spaces of mesophyll cells. See changes in the cytoplasm of the plant host cell in close contact with the bacteria. (pc) parenchyma cells. Three plants of each condition were used for microscopy and the pictures are representative of the three inoculated plants. H. SB273005 concentration rubrisubalbicans hrpE and hrcN mutant strains do not elicit lesions on Vigna unguiculata leaves. To study the effect of T3SS genes mutation in another host, V. unguiculata leaves were infiltrated with H. rubrisubalbicans strains M1, TSE and TSN. Inoculation with H. rubrisubalbicans M1 caused lesions on the leaves. The infiltrated zone showed the first sign of tissue collapse after 48 h of infiltration, and within

10 days the zone became necrotic, surrounded by strong BKM120 chlorotic halos, followed by leaf loss (Figure 6b). Figure 6 Inoculation of Vigna unguiculata leaves with M1, TSE and TSN strains of H. rubrisubalbicans and recovery of bacteria from internal tissue. V. unguiculata leaves were infiltrated twenty days after germination; the photos were taken 10 days after infiltration. The scale bars are shown (1 cm). (a) Control leaves were infiltrated with 1 mL of MgSO4 10 mM solution. (b) Leaves infiltrated with wild type strain M1 (108 cells). (c) Leaves Montelukast Sodium infiltrated with 108 cells of the mutant strain TSE. (d) Leaves infiltrated

with mutant strain TSN (108 cells). (e) V. unguiculata plants were infiltrated with the indicated strains, and ten days later they were superficially disinfected, macerated, the macerate was diluted and plated. The plates were kept at 30 °C for 24 hours and colonies counted. The experiment contained five plants in each condition and repeated on at least three separate dates. Results are shown as means of Log10 (number of bacteria g-1 of fresh root). Standard deviation (Student t-test, p < 0.05). In contrast, infiltration of leaves with H. rubrisubalbicans TSE and TSN mutants did not produce lesions (Figure 6c, d). These data suggest that mutation in hrpE and hrcN genes prevented the TSE and TSN mutant strains from causing disease symptoms on infiltrated leaves. The leaves of V. unguiculata used as controls (Figure 5a) and those inoculated with the wild type M1 and mutant strains TSE and TSN were superficially disinfected, macerated and dilutions were plated.

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