Oscillatory beta activity is in turn modulated by net dopamine levels at sites of cortical input to the basal ganglia. We hypothesise that net dopamine levels are modulated in response to salient internal and external cues. Crucially, the resulting modulation of beta activity is predictive, enabling the appropriate prospective resourcing and preparation of potential actions. Loss of dopamine, as in Parkinson’s MK-2206 in vivo disease, annuls this function, unless net dopaminergic activity can be elevated through medication.”
general, acute immobilization stress increases plasma corticosterone levels that signal the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Mineralocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus perform crucial roles in this feedback mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chewing under stress on the rat hippocampal
mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors by immunohistochemistry. We separated rats into a control group, a 2-h immobilization stress group (stress only group), and a 2-h immobilization stress group that was allowed to chew on a wooden stick for the latter 1 h (stress with chewing group). Mineralocorticoid receptor immunoreactive cells with nucleus staining in the hippocampal CA1 area were scattered in the pyramidal cell layer. The stress only group showed the densest distribution of immunoreactive cells; however, the density of the immunoreactive cells in the stress with chewing group was similar to that of the control group. Changes in immunoreactive cell density were not visible in other areas of the hippocampus, Selleck Thiazovivin namely, the CA3 area and dentate gyrus. Image analysis indicated that the increase in the mineralocorticoid receptor immunoreactive area within a fixed area in the stress only group was statistically significant compared with those in the control group and the stress with chewing group. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactive cells in the CA1 area seemed to be increased in the stress with chewing group, but not in the stress only group. Image analysis indicated that this increase was statistically
significant. These results suggest that immobilization and immobilization with chewing differentially affect these two types of glucocorticoid receptors in the rat hippocampus. Considering that chewing has alleviative Rutecarpine effects against stress, glucocorticoid receptor elevation in the hippocampal CA1 area is one of the neuronal mechanisms of coping with stress. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of many cellular processes and can modulate cellular signaling pathways. However, high ROS levels are toxic; thus, intracellular ROS need to be tightly controlled. Therefore, cells use a group of antioxidant molecules and detoxifying enzymes that remove or detoxify reactive species.