Runx2, an osteoblast master transcription factor, is aberrantly expressed in PCa cells, and promotes
their metastatic phenotype. The transcriptional programs regulated by Runx2 have been extensively studied during osteoblastogenesis, where it activates or represses selleck products target genes in a context-dependent manner. However, little is known about the gene regulatory networks influenced by Runx2 in PCa cells. We therefore investigated genome wide mRNA expression changes in PCa cells in response to Runx2.\n\nResults: We engineered a C4-2B PCa sub-line called C4-2B/Rx2(dox), in which Doxycycline (Dox) treatment stimulates Runx2 expression from very low to levels observed in other PCa cells. Transcriptome profiling using whole genome expression array followed by in silico analysis indicated that Runx2 upregulated a multitude of genes with prominent cancer associated functions. They included secreted factors (CSF2, SDF-1), proteolytic enzymes selleck screening library (MMP9, CST7), cytoskeleton modulators (SDC2, Twinfilin, SH3PXD2A), intracellular signaling molecules (DUSP1, SPHK1, RASD1) and transcription factors (wSox9, SNAI2, SMAD3) functioning in epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT), tissue invasion, as well as homing and attachment to bone. Consistent with the gene expression data, induction of Runx2 in C4-2B cells enhanced their invasiveness. It also promoted cellular quiescence by blocking the G1/S phase transition during
cell cycle progression. Furthermore, the cell cycle block was reversed as Runx2 levels
declined after Dox withdrawal.\n\nConclusions: The effects of Runx2 in C4-2B/Rx2dox cells, as well as similar observations made by employing LNCaP, 22RV1 and PC3 cells, highlight multiple mechanisms by which Runx2 promotes the metastatic phenotype of PCa cells, including tissue invasion, homing to bone and induction of high bone turnover. Runx2 is therefore an attractive target for the development of novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches to PCa management. Targeting Runx2 may prove more effective than focusing on its individual PCI-34051 downstream genes and pathways.”
“Esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most deadly malignances because of its high frequency of metastasis. Given the associations of MUC1 with ESCC and tumor metastasis, we explored a potential role of MUC1 in ESCC metastasis. Among 40 ESCC and 20 paired normal tissue specimens examined, we found a significant increase of MUC1 expression in ESCC and more importantly, that expression of MUC1 and MMP13 are strongly correlated in patients who had lymph node metastasis. Studies with cell models indicated that overexpression of MUC1 upregulates the expression of MMP13, leading to increased cell migration. In support of a mode of transcriptional regulation, promoter analysis revealed that MUC1 stimulates MMP13 expression through the Runx-2-binding site.