The ribonucleoside monophosphates are further phosphorylated to t

The ribonucleoside monophosphates are further phosphorylated to their RXDX-101 datasheet triphosphate forms, and are then incorporated into RNA, or the diphosphate forms can be reduced by ribonucleotide reductase to produce precursors for DNA synthesis (Figure 4). Of 17 genes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, 15 are essential [33, 34]. Therefore, it has been suggested that this

pathway may be a therapeutic target for future development of antibiotics [42]. Figure 4 Schematic overview of M. pneumoniae nucleotide biosynthesis . Hx, hypoxanthine; Gua, guanine; Ura, uracil; Thy, thymine; dT, thymidine; dA, deoxyadenosine; dC deoxycytidine; dG, deoxyguanosine; PRPP, selleck phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate; NMP, nucleoside monophosphate; NDP, nucleoside diphosphate, NTP, nucleoside triphosphate; dNDP, deoxynucleoside diphosphate; dNTP, deoxynucleoside

triphosphate; TFT, trifluorothymidine; TFT-MP, trifluorothymidine monophosphate; TFT-TP, trifluorothymidine triphosphate; 5FdU-MP, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate; 5FdU-TP, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate; dFdC-DP, gemcitabine diphosphate; dFdC-TP, gemcitabine triphosphate; 6-TG, 6-thioguanine; 6-TG-TP, 6-thioguanine triphosphate. Enzymes: hpt, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (MPN672); apt, adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (MPN395); upp, uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (MPN033); deoA, thymidine phosphorylase (MPN064); tdk, thymidine kinase (MPN044); thyA, thymidylate synthase (MPN320); tmk, thymidylate kinase (MPN006); adk, adenylate kinase (MPN185); gmk, guanylate kinase (MPN246); cmk, cytidylate kinase (MPN476); nrdE/nrdF, ribonucleotide reductase (MPN322 and MPN324); pyrH, uridylate kinase (MPN632); deoxyadenosine kinase (MPN386). I = inhibition. Our screening of 30 FDA-approved anticancer and antiviral nucleoside analogs revealed seven potent inhibitors of Mpn growth with MIC values at clinically check details achievable plasma concentrations. Nucleoside and nucleobase analogs

used in anticancer and antiviral therapy are prodrugs. In order to exert their therapeutic potential they have to compete with natural substrates for uptake (e.g. transport across plasma membrane) and metabolism (e.g. enzymes that activate them to their active forms). Once phosphorylated these analogs are trapped inside the cells and further metabolized to their active form by cellular enzymes, therefore, competition/inhibition of enzymes (e.g. TK or HPRT) in the initial phosphorylation step would also affect the uptake and metabolism of these compounds, and thus their cytotoxic effect (Figure 4). As shown in Table 2, dipyridamole and 6-TG inhibited Hx and Gua uptake and metabolism but not Ade or Ura, suggesting that HPRT may be an immediate target. Pyrimidine nucleoside analogs e.g.

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