Third, our study only involved the ingestion of isolated carbohydrate (in the form of dextrose) and lipid (in the form of heavy whipping
cream) meals. The inclusion of protein meals , or mixed meals , may have resulted in different findings. Fourth, we only included a measure of total testosterone, and not free testosterone, which is the most biologically active state of testosterone comprising about 0.2-2% of total testosterone . It is possible that free testosterone may have responded differently to feeding. Fifth, other hormones involved in anabolism and catabolism, such as growth hormone, were not measured. Measurement of additional hormones may have provided further insight into the impact of feeding on postprandial hormonal response. MK0683 research buy Finally, the inclusion of exercise within the research design could have introduced another variable which may have impacted our findings . Further research in this area may consider the above limitations in order to improve upon the study design. Conclusions Our data indicate HSP inhibitor that acute feeding of either lipid or carbohydrate of varying size has
little impact on serum testosterone or cortisol during the acute postprandial period. Serum insulin is significantly increased by carbohydrate feedings, but not lipid feedings. Future work should consider the inclusion of older and metabolically compromised individuals, as well Elongation factor 2 kinase as women, in an effort to determine their response to single macronutrient feeding of different loads. These
studies may also consider the use of multiple meals of a particular macronutrient to gather data regarding how these hormones are affected during a 24 hour cycle. This would further clarify whether the changes in cortisol and testosterone are indeed impacted by feeding or if they simply follow their diurnal cycle. References 1. Habito RC, Ball MJ: Postprandial changes in sex hormones after meals of different composition. Metabolism 2001, 50:505–511.PubMedCrossRef 2. Mikulski T, Ziemba A, Nazar K: Metabolic and hormonal responses to body carbohydrate store depletion followed by high or low carbohydrate meal in sedentary and physically active subjects. J Physiol Pharmacol 2010, 61:193–200.PubMed 3. El Khoury D, Hwalla N: Metabolic and appetite BKM120 clinical trial hormone responses of hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic males to meals with varied macronutrient compositions. Ann Nutr Metab 2010, 57:59–67.PubMedCrossRef 4. Martens MJ, Rutters F, Lemmens SG, Born JM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS: Effects of single macronutrients on serum cortisol concentrations in normal weight men. Physiol Behav 2010, 101:563–567.PubMedCrossRef 5. Meikle AW, Cardoso de Sousa JC, Hanzalova J, Murray DK: Oleic acid inhibits cholesteryl esterase and cholesterol utilization for testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells. Metabolism 1996, 45:293–299.PubMedCrossRef 6.