001) in the number of hyperplastic nodules between HBx/shp53 and HBx, between HBx/shp53 and empty/shp53, between HBx and NRAS/shp53, and between empty/shp53 and NRAS/shp53. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were seen between NRAS/shp53 and HBx/NRAS and between NRAS/shp53 and
Gfp. Marginal significance (P < 0.05) was seen between HBx/shp53 and HBx/NRAS, between HBx/shp53 and Gfp, between HBx and HBx/NRAS/shp53, and between empty/shp53 and HBx/NRAS/shp53 (Fig. 3A). A statistical analysis using the two-tailed Mann-Whitney test indicated highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the weight percentage between HBx/shp53 and empty/shp53 and between HBx and empty/shp53. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were seen between http://www.selleckchem.com/screening/anti-infection-compound-library.html HBx/shp53 and Gfp, between HBx and Gfp, between empty/shp53 and HBx/NRAS/shp53, and between HBx/NRAS/shp53 and Gfp. Marginal significance (P < 0.05) was seen between HBx/shp53 and HBx/NRAS, Tamoxifen research buy between HBx and HBx/NRAS, between empty/shp53 and NRAS/shp53, between NRAS/shp53 and Gfp, and between HBx/shp53 and Gfp (Fig. 3B). Mice injected with NRAS alone generally had weak expression levels of Ctnnb1 detectable by IHC (Fig. 4). Hyperplastic nodules induced by NRAS coinjected with shp53 generally had higher Ctnnb1 expression levels but not the levels
seen in HBx or HBx/shp53 mice (Fig. 4). As expected, HBx/NRAS mice had heterogeneous staining patterns for selleck kinase inhibitor Ctnnb1 (Fig. 4). In contrast, hyperplastic nodules from NRAS or NRAS/shp53 mice were highly positive for pAkt by IHC (Fig. 5). Using the SB transposon system and hydrodynamically introducing transgenes specifically into the
livers of Fah-null/SB transposase–expressing recipient mice, we could dissect the contributions of various gene components of HBV by inducing liver hyperplasia in these animals. Our results demonstrate the oncogenic effect of the HBx transgene when it is hydrodynamically delivered into hepatocytes repopulating a liver. The low penetrance or delayed tumorigenic latency of HBx in injected mice may reflect the long latency of HBV-induced cirrhosis and tumorigenesis in infected humans. The fact that we observed an effect of HBx alone may indicate that its expression can cooperate with the process of hepatocyte regrowth to induce liver hyperplasia. Mice injected with HBx alone seem to have higher liver to whole mass percentages, and this indicates that HBx may have a hyperproliferative effect during HBV-induced liver tumorigenesis (Fig. 3B). Tumor latency was reduced and the oncogenic effect was augmented when HBx was coinjected with shp53. This is especially important because approximately 50% of human patients with HCC have mutations in the TP53 gene. HBx has been shown to bind TP53 and inactivate its activity,9, 11 but our data indicate that this mechanism must not impair TP53 function sufficiently for tumor formation.