They include rare species, threatened with extinction and subjected to different forms of nature conservation
or included on Red Lists drawn up by many countries (Buczyński and Pakulnicka 2000; Lewin and Smolinski 2006; Pakulnicka 2008; Lenda et al. 2012). The Epigenetics inhibitor special role of anthropogenic ponds in maintaining species richness and preserving many species of invertebrates was selleck chemicals llc implied, for example, by Wildermuth and Krebs (1983); Ohnesorge (1988); Collinson et al. (1995); Ott (1995); Carl (1997); Sternberg (1997); Geißler-Strobel et al. (1998); Buczyński (1999); Williams et al. (2004); Pakulnicka (2008). Their observations are supported by the results of studies on other groups of organisms, e.g. those belonging to zooplankton (Trahms 1972; Lipsey and Malcolm 1981) or to birds (Catchpole and Tydeman 1975; Hudoklin and Sovinc 1997). It can be claimed that ponds formed in excavation pits assume, at least to some extent, the ecological functions of natural ponds, counteracting certain unfavorable changes in the natural landscape. Many authors emphasize
the considerable influence of physical and chemical parameters of habitats on species richness, abundance and diversity of communities of living organisms (Trahms 1972; Barnes 1983; Lewin and Smolinski 2006; Eyre et al. 1992; Jurkiewicz-Karnkowska 2011). This observation applies to aquatic beetles
as well (Winfield Fairchild et https://www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html al. 2000; Bosi 2001; Eyre et al. 1992). Water beetles are a fundamental component of the fauna dwelling in various aquatic habitats (Foster et al. 2009; Foster and Eyre 1992; Menetrey et al. 2005; Giora et al. 2010a, b; Pakulnicka and Nowakowski 2012). The fauna of water beetles is ecologically varied and consists of 4 synecological components, understood as groups of species sharing common habitat preferences (Pakulnicka 2008). Those are: eurytopic species, argillotrophic species, tyrphophilous species and rheophilous ones. The first group L-NAME HCl is constituted by species living in small and strongly eutrophic waters. Such species are usually common and numerous in different kinds of water bodies. Argillotrophic species found in waters with increased mineralization show a higher preference of habitats with gravel or clay bottoms. Rheophilous species are characteristic of less eutrophic waters and tyrphophilous species of polyhumic waters. Water beetles can be extremely sensitive to environmental factors and readily respond to changes (Foster et al. 2009; Foster and Eyre 1992; Menetrey et al. 2005; Giora et al. 2010a, b).