Conclusions: Intensive renal support in critically ill patients w

Conclusions: Intensive renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury did not decrease mortality, improve recovery of kidney function, or reduce the rate of nonrenal organ failure as

compared with less-intensive therapy involving a defined dose of intermittent hemodialysis three times per week and continuous renal-replacement therapy at 20 ml per kilogram per hour. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00076219.).”
“Purpose: Prostate sparing cystectomy provides an alternative therapeutic option in highly selected patients with invasive bladder cancer who wish to avoid the significant functional side effects of traditional surgery. Concern exists regarding the oncological. safety of this technique especially with regard to the presence of prostatic urothelial cancer and incidental click here prostate adenocarcinoma. this website We present the long-term oncological outcomes of a large series of patients treated at a single institution.

Materials and Methods: Between October 1992 and June 2004 a total of 117 patients were selected for prostate sparing cystectomy after meeting the inclusion criteria.

Results: Nine

patients underwent radical cystoprostatectomy after prostate urothelial carcinoma was diagnosed intraoperatively. Long-term oncological results (2 years minimum followup, [mean 55 months]) are presented here for the remaining patients. The rate of local and distant recurrence was 4.7% and 34%, respectively, at 20 months. Overall survival at 5 years in our study was 67%, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 77% for pT2 NO or less, 44% for pT3 NO or greater and 22% for pN+ disease. Of 6 patients found to have prostate adenocarcinoma in transurethral prostate resection specimens 1 was treated with high intensity focused ultrasound and 5 were followed with active surveillance, 2 of whom later died of bladder cancer.

Conclusions: PLX-4720 mouse We report oncological. data on the largest prospective cohort of patients, with the longest followup, treated by prostate sparing cystectomy to date. Outcomes are comparable with the largest published series of cystoprosatectomies. With appropriate

screening the risk of a clinically significant prostate cancer appears to be low. For certain selected patients this technique represents a valuable additional option for treatment.”
“Background: During the administration of advanced cardiac life support for resuscitation from cardiac arrest, a combination of vasopressin and epinephrine may be more effective than epinephrine or vasopressin alone, but evidence is insufficient to make clinical recommendations.

Methods: In a multicenter study, we randomly assigned adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to receive successive injections of either 1 mg of epinephrine and 40 IU of vasopressin or 1 mg of epinephrine and saline placebo, followed by administration of the same combination of study drugs if spontaneous circulation was not restored and subsequently by additional epinephrine if needed.

Thus, a neural relay, potentially involving muscarinic acetylchol

Thus, a neural relay, potentially involving muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, indirectly increases the effects of Xen on pancreatic polypeptide release in humans. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The hymenochirins are a family of cationic, amphipathic, alpha-helical host-defense peptides, first isolated from skin secretions of the Congo clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Pipidae). Of the four hymenochirins tested, hymenochirin-1B (IKLSPETKDNLKKVLKGAIKGAIVAKMV center dot NH2) shows the greatest cytotoxic potency against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma

A549 cells (LC50 = 2.5 +/- 0.2 mu M), breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells (LC50 = 9.0 +/- 03 mu M), colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells (LC50 = 9.7 +/- 0.2 mu M), and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells (LC50 = 22.5 +/- 1.4 mu M) with appreciably less hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC50 = https://www.selleckchem.com/products/sbi-0206965.html 213 +/- 18 mu M). Structure-activity relationships were investigated by synthesizing analogs of hymenochirin-1B in which Pro(5), G1u(6) and Asp(9)on the hydrophilic face of the helix were replaced by one or more L-lysine or D-lysine DUB inhibitor residues. The [D9K] analog displays the greatest increase in potency against all

four cell lines (up to 6 fold) but hemolytic activity also increases (LC50 = 174 +/- 12 mu M). The [D9k] and [E6k,D9k] analogs retain relatively high cytotoxic potency against the tumor cells (LC50 in the range 2.1-21 mu M) but show reduced hemolytic activity (LC50 > 300 mu M). The data suggest that hymenochirin-1B has therapeutic potential as a template to generate potent, non-toxic anti-cancer agents. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism,

inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions find more (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions.

Methods: Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1.

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling can lead to severe developmental d

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling can lead to severe developmental defects and perturbation of muscle homeostasis. Recent work has revealed novel roles for the non-canonical planar cell polarity (PCP) and AKT/mTOR pathways in mediating the effects of Wnt on skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the role of Wnt signaling in myogenesis and in regulating the homeostasis of adult muscle.”
“Objective: We developed a validated 50-point recipient

risk index predicting short-term mortality after orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). This study examined the relationship between institutional volume and recipient risk on post-OHT mortality.

Methods: We used United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data to identify primary OHT recipients between January 2000 and April 2010. Centers were stratified SRT1720 cell line by mean annual volume. Preoperative Index for Mortality Prediction After Cardiac Transplantation risk

scores were calculated for each patient with BAY 11-7082 ic50 our validated 50-point system. Primary outcomes were 30-day and 1-year survivals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included interaction terms to examine effect modification of risk and volume on mortality.

Results: In all, 18,226 patients underwent transplant at 141 centers: 1173 (6.4%) recipients at low-volume centers (<7 procedures/y), 5353 (29.4%) at medium-volume centers (7-15 procedures/y), and 11,700 (64.2%) at high-volume centers (>15 procedures/y). Low center volume was associated with worse 1-year mortality (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.92; P < .001). For 1-year survival, there was

significant positive interaction between center volume and recipient risk score (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07; P = .02), indicating effect of risk on mortality at low-volume centers greater than from either variable analyzed individually. Among high-risk recipients (score >= 10), 1-year survival was improved at high-volume centers (high, 79%; medium, 75%; low, 64%).

Conclusions: In analysis of UNOS data with our validated recipient risk index, institutional volume acted as an effect modifier on association between risk and mortality. High-risk patients had higher mortality at low-volume GSK923295 supplier centers; differences dissipated among lower-risk recipients. These data support a mandate for high-risk transplants at higher-volume centers. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:157-67)”
“A novel database search algorithm is presented for the qualitative identification of proteins over a wide dynamic range, both in simple and complex biological samples. The algorithm has been designed for the analysis of data originating from data independent acquisitions, whereby multiple precursor ions are fragmented simultaneously. Measurements used by the algorithm include retention time, ion intensities, charge state, and accurate masses on both precursor and product ions from LC-MS data.

Capsaicin, or its Vehicle, was directly administered into the mas

Capsaicin, or its Vehicle, was directly administered into the masseter muscle and changes in resting SHP099 cell line discharge, responses to mechanical stimulation on the cutaneous receptive field and the electrical threshold for masseter nerve stimulation were assessed. Intramuscular capsaicin induced significant increase in the background discharge and mechanical hypersensitivity to the cutaneous stimulation and lowered the threshold for masseter nerve stimulation-evoked responses in the majority of neurons. The capsaicin-induced increase in evoked responses, but not the resting discharge, was partially attenuated when the muscle was pretreated with a mGluR antagonist. The present

study suggests that injury or inflammation in the masseter muscle induce generalized hyperexcitability of central trigeminal neurons and that the blockade of peripherally localized mGluR5 can effectively attenuate muscular hypersensitivity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In order to determine sources and metabolism of melatonin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin

(aMT6S) concentrations were measured in CSF sampled during neurosurgery in both lateral URMC-099 mouse and third ventricles in patients displaying movement disorder (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia or dyskinesia) and compared with their plasma levels. Previous determinations in nocturnal urine had showed that the patients displayed melatonin excretion in the normal range, compared with healthy controls matched according to age. A significant difference in melatonin concentration was observed between lateral and third ventricles, with the highest levels in the third ventricle (8.75 +/- 2.75 pg/ml vs. 3.20 +/- 0.33 pg/ml, p = 0.01). CSF aMT6s levels were similar in both ventricles and of low

magnitude, less than 5 pg/ml. They were not correlated with melatonin levels or influenced by the area of sampling. Melatonin levels were significantly higher in third ventricle than in the plasma, whereas there was no difference between plasma and lateral ventricle levels. These findings show that melatonin may enter directly the CSF through the pineal recess in humans. The Tideglusib molecular weight physiological meaning of these data remains to be elucidated. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been thought to primarily involve damage to the sensory hair cells of the cochlea via mechanical and metabolic mechanisms. This study examined the effects of baicalin, baicalein, and Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) extract against NIHL in a mouse model. Mice received oral treatment with SB, baicalin, baicalein beginning 30 min prior to noise exposure and continuing once daily throughout the study. Hearing threshold shift was assessed by auditory brain stem responses for 35 days following noise exposure.

Subgroup analysis and visual inspection of linear spline fit of t

Subgroup analysis and visual inspection of linear spline fit of these data suggested an approximate serum testosterone cutoff for normal of 300 ng/dl for percent change in hematocrit, and 200 ng/dl for baseline prostate specific antigen and percent change in prostate specific antigen.

Conclusions:

This exploratory study revealed considerable variation among individuals and target tissues in individuals. Further study should be performed using standardized assays in a broader population.”
“Background. Early Intervention in Psychosis Services (EIS) for young people in England experiencing first-episode psychosis (FEE) were commissioned in 2002, Daporinad chemical structure based on an expected incidence of 15 cases per 100 000 person-years, as reported by schizophrenia epidemiology in highly urban settings. Unconfirmed reports from

EIS thereafter have suggested higher than anticipated rates. The aim of this study was to compare the observed with the expected incidence and delineate the clinical epidemiology of FEP using epidemiologically complete data from the CAMEO EIS, over a 6-year period in Cambridgeshire, for a mixed rural urban population.

Method. A population-based study of FEP (ICD-10, F10-39) in people aged 17-35 years referred between 2002 and 2007; the denominator was estimated from mid-year census statistics. Sociodemographic variation was explored by Poisson regression. Crude and directly standardized rates (for age, sex and ethnicity) were compared with pre-EIS rates from two major epidemiological FEE studies conducted in urban English settings.

Results. A total of 285 3-deazaneplanocin A supplier cases met FEP diagnoses in CAMEO, yielding a crude incidence of 50 per 100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 44.5-56.2]. Age- and sex-adjusted rates were raised for people from black ethnic groups compared with the white British [incidence rate ratio (ERR) 2.1, 95% CI

1.1-3.8]. Rates in our EIS were comparable with pre-EIS rates observed in more urban areas after age, sex and ethnicity standardization.

Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the incidence observed in EIS is far higher than originally anticipated and is comparable to rates observed in more urban settings prior to the advent of EIS. Sociodemographic Gamma-secretase inhibitor variation due to ethnicity and other factors extend beyond urban populations. Our results have implications for psychosis aetiology and service planning.”
“Purpose: We developed an artificial neural network and nomogram using readily available clinical features to model the chance of identifying sperm with microdissection testicular sperm extraction by readily available preoperative clinical parameters for men with nonobstructive azoospermia.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed the records of 1,026 men who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

To investigate this issue, we carried out RNA deep-sequencing (RN

To investigate this issue, we carried out RNA deep-sequencing (RNA-seq) on age-matched Drosophila LCL161 Smn-null and wild-type larvae. Comparison of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles with publicly available data sets revealed the timing of a developmental arrest in the Smn mutants. Furthermore, genome-wide differences in splicing between

wild-type and Smn animals did not correlate with changes in mRNA levels. Specifically, we found that mRNA levels of genes that contain minor introns vary more over developmental time than they do between wild-type and Smn mutants. An analysis of reads mapping to minor-class intron-exon junctions revealed only small changes in the splicing of minor introns in Smn larvae, within the normal fluctuations that occur throughout development. In contrast, Smn mutants displayed a prominent increase in levels of stress-responsive transcripts, indicating a systemic

response to the developmental arrest induced by loss of SMN protein. These findings not only provide important mechanistic insight into the developmental arrest displayed by Smn mutants, but also argue against a minor-intron-dependent etiology for SMA.”
“Riboswitches are structured mRNA elements that modulate gene expression. They undergo conformational changes triggered by highly specific interactions with sensed metabolites. Among the structural rearrangements engaged by riboswitches, the forming and melting of the aptamer terminal

helix, the so-called P1 stem, is essential Selleckchem PF299804 for genetic control. The structural mechanisms by which this conformational change is modulated upon ligand binding mostly remain to be elucidated. Here, we used pulling molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamics of the P1 stem in the add adenine riboswitch. The P1 ligand-dependent U0126 stabilization was quantified in terms of free energy and compared with thermodynamic data. This comparison suggests a model for the aptamer folding in which direct P1-ligand interactions play a minor role on the conformational switch when compared with those related to the ligand-induced aptamer preorganization.”
“The RNA recognition motif (RRM) is the most common RNA-binding domain in eukaryotes. Differences in RRM sequences dictate, in part, both RNA and protein-binding specificities and affinities. We used a deep mutational scanning approach to study the sequence-function relationship of the RRM2 domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1). By scoring the activity of more than 100,000 unique Pab1 variants, including 1246 with single amino acid substitutions, we delineated the mutational constraints on each residue. Clustering of residues with similar mutational patterns reveals three major classes, composed principally of RNA-binding residues, of hydrophobic core residues, and of the remaining residues.

Primary endpoints were change in prebronchodilator forced expirat

Primary endpoints were change in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the rate of exacerbations

that were moderate (glucocorticosteroid-treated) or severe. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00297102 for M2-124, and NCT00297115 for M2-125.

Findings Patients were assigned to treatment, stratified according to smoking status and treatment with longacting beta(2) agonists, and given roflumilast (n=1537) or placebo (n=1554). In both studies, the prespecified primary endpoints were achieved and were similar in magnitude. In a pooled analysis, prebronchodilator FEV(1) increased by 48 mL with roflumilast this website compared with placebo (p<0.0001). The rate of exacerbations that were moderate or severe per patient per year was 1.14 with roflumilast and 1.37 with placebo (reduction learn more 17% [95% Cl 8-25], p<0.0003). Adverse events were more common with roflumilast (1040 [67%]) than with placebo (963 [62%]); 219 (14%) patients in the roflumilast group and 177 (12%) in the placebo group discontinued because of adverse events.

In the pooled analysis, the difference in weight change during the study between the roflumilast and placebo Copanlisib groups was -2.17 kg.

Interpretation Since different subsets of patients exist within the broad spectrum of COPD, targeted specific therapies could improve disease management. This possibility should be explored further in prospective studies.”
“Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary

disease (COPD) have few options for treatment. The efficacy and safety of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast have been investigated in studies of patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, but not in those concomitantly treated with longacting inhaled bronchodilators. The effect of roflumilast on lung function in patients with COPD that is moderate to severe who are already being treated with salmeterol or tiotropium was investigated.

Methods In two double-blind, multicentre studies done in an outpatient setting, after a 4-week run-in, patients older than 40 years with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomly assigned to oral roflumilast 500 mu g or placebo once a day for 24 weeks, in addition to salmeterol (M2-127 study) or tiotropium (M2-128 study). The primary endpoint was change in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)). Analysis was by intention to treat. The studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00313209 for M2-127, and NCT00424268 for M2-128.

Of particular interest is how MHC class I presentation of essenti

Of particular interest is how MHC class I presentation of essential regulatory immediate early (IE) proteins of HCMV can be effectively compromised at times when known viral immunoevasins are not abundantly expressed. The tegument protein pp71 had been suggested to be involved in MHC class I downregulation. Intriguingly,

this polypeptide is also critically engaged in the initial derepression of the major IE gene locus, leading to enhanced expression of IE proteins IE1-pp72 and IE2-pp86. Using a set of viral mutants, we addressed the role of pp71 in MHC class I presentation of IE1-pp72-derived peptides. We show that the amount of “”incoming”" pp71 positively correlates with IE1-pp72 protein levels and with the presentation of IE1-derived selleck chemicals peptides. This indicates that the amount of the IE1 protein, induced by pp71, rather than a putative immunoevasive function of the tegument protein, determines MHC class I

antigen presentation of IE1-derived peptides. This process proved to be independent of the presence of pp65, which had been reported to interfere with IE1 presentation. It may thus be beneficial for the success of HCMV replication to limit the level of pp71 delivered from infecting particles in order to avoid critical levels of MHC class I presentation of IE protein-derived peptides.”
“Sucrose phosphorylase is a promising biocatalyst Fulvestrant solubility dmso for the glycosylation of a wide variety of acceptor molecules, but its low thermostability is a serious drawback for industrial applications. In this work, the stability

of the enzyme from Bifidobacterium adolescentis has been significantly improved by a combination of smart and rational mutagenesis. The former consists of substituting the most flexible residues with amino acids that occur more frequently at the corresponding positions in related sequences, while the latter is based on a careful inspection of the A769662 enzyme’s crystal structure to promote electrostatic interactions. In this way, a variant enzyme could be created that contains six mutations and whose half-life at the industrially relevant temperature of 60 degrees C has more than doubled compared with the wild-type enzyme. An increased stability in the presence of organic co-solvents could also be observed, although these effects were most noticeable at low temperatures.”
“The 1918 pandemic influenza virus was the most devastating infectious agent in human history, causing fatal pneumonia and an estimated 20 to 50 million deaths worldwide. Previous studies indicated a prominent role of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene in efficient replication and high virulence of the 1918 virus in mice. It is, however, still unclear whether the high replication ability or the 1918 influenza virus HA gene is required for 1918 virus to exhibit high virulence in mice.

The best linear model obtained by using non-stochastic bilinear i

The best linear model obtained by using non-stochastic bilinear indices explains about 91% of the variance of the experimental Log K (R = 0.95 and s = 0.08 x 10(-4) M(-1)) as long as the best stochastic bilinear indices-based equation account for 93% of the Log K variance (R = 0.97 and s = 0.07 x 10(-4) M(-1)). The leave-one-out (LOO) press statistics,

evidenced high predictive ability of both models (q(2) = 0.86 and s(cv) = 0.09 x 10(-4) M(-1) for non-stochastic and q(2) = 0.91 and s(cv) = 0.08 x 10(-4) M(-1) for stochastic bilinear indices). The nucleic acid’s Nec-1s nmr bilinear indices-based models compared favorably with other nucleic acid’s indices-based approaches reported nowadays. These models also permit the interpretation of the driving forces of the interaction process. In this sense, developed equations involve short-reaching (k <= 3), middle-reaching (4 < k < 9), and far-reaching (k = 10 or greater) nucleotide’s bilinear indices. This situation points to electronic and topologic nucleotide’s backbone interactions control of the stability profile of paromomycin-RNA complexes. Consequently, see more the present approach represents a novel and rather promising way to theoretical-biology studies. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) children show cognitive and affective deficits,

in addition to state-specific loss of respiratory drive. The caudate nuclei serve motor, cognitive, and affective roles, and show structural deficits in CCHS patients, based on gross voxel-based analytic procedures. However, the magnitude and regional sites of caudate injury in CCHS are unclear. We assessed global caudate nuclei volumes with manual volumetric

procedures, and regional volume differences with three-dimensional surface morphometry in 14 CCHS (mean age+/-SD: 15.1+/-2.3 years; 8 male) and 31 control children (15.1+/-2.4 years; 17 male) using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two high-resolution T1-weighted image series were collected using a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner; images were averaged and reoriented (rigid-body transformation) to common space. Both left and right caudate nuclei were outlined in the reoriented images, and global NCT-501 cell line volumes calculated; surface models were derived from manually-outlined caudate structures. Global caudate nuclei volume differences between groups were evaluated using a multivariate analysis of covariance (covariates: age, gender, and total intracranial volume). Both left and right caudate nuclei volumes were significantly reduced in CCHS over control subjects (left, 4293.45+/-549.05 vs. 4626.87+/-593.41 mm(3), P<0.006; right, 4376.29+/-565.42 vs. 4747.81+/-578.13 mm(3), P<0.004). Regional deficits in CCHS caudate volume appeared bilaterally, in the rostral head, ventrolateral mid, and caudal body.

There is a growing interest in the study of linguistic and parali

There is a growing interest in the study of linguistic and paralinguistic components, psychosocial aftermaths, and neural basis of FAS, but there are not yet neuroscience-driven treatments for this condition. A multimodal evaluation was conducted in a single patient with the aim of searching for clues which may assist to design neuroscience-driven therapies. The patient was a middle-aged bilingual woman who had chronic FAS. She had segmental SC79 chemical structure deficits, abnormal production of linguistic and emotional prosody, impaired verbal communication, and reduced motivation and

social engagement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral small lesions mainly affecting the left deep frontal operculum and dorsal anterior insula. Diffusion tensor Selleck Omipalisib tractography suggested disrupted left deep frontal operculum-anterior insula connectivity. Metabolic activity measured with positron emission tomography was primarily decreased in key components of networks implicated in planning and execution of speech production, cognitive control and emotional communication (Brodmann’s areas 4/6/9/10/13/25/47, basal ganglia, and anterior cerebellar vermis). Compensatory increases of metabolic activity were found in cortical areas (left anterior cingulate gyrus, left

superior temporal gyrus and right prefrontal cortex) associated with feedback and focal attention processes critical for monitoring and adjustment of verbal utterances. Moreover, bilateral structural and functional abnormalities probably interrupted the trajectory of the lateral and medial cholinergic pathways causing region-specific hypoactivity. The results from this study provide targets for further investigation and some clues to design therapeutic interventions. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The present series of five flavor aversion

experiments with rat subjects examined compound conditioning at varying CS-US intervals. Using a taste-taste design, Experiments selleck chemicals 1A and 1B demonstrated overshadowing at a 0-min CS-US interval and potentiation at a 120-min CS-US interval, and these effects occurred with both tastes of the compound. Experiment 2 showed that the aversion to a single element is reduced when the CS-US interval is increased to 120 min, but the aversion for a compound taste is not. Experiments 3A and 3B explored odor + taste compound conditioning; the results demonstrated odor potentiation across the trace interval and a transition from taste overshadowing to taste potentiation. Collectively, the data show that the change from overshadowing to potentiation was not due to changes in the aversions produced by compound conditioning but, instead, was due to a more rapid loss of conditionability across a trace interval prior to the US in single-element conditioning.