Body composition changes, however, can be seen in hours or days, depending mainly on the magnitude of caloric restriction or training intensity. Ormsbee et al.  showed increased energy expenditure and fat ABT-888 research buy oxidation immediately after a resistance exercise session, Gibala and McGee , showed changes in 2 weeks of high
intensity exercise. Caffeine is a popular ergogenic aid with well described properties in the literature [4, 18]. It’s also known, that caffeine can change body composition, once it improves fat oxidation decreasing the body’s fat mass . Caffeine can be considered an ergogenic aid regarding fat oxidation from doses as low as 5 mg/kg . On the other hand, we not found changes in the strength test after 4 weeks
PAKs supplementation. Muscle hypertrophy usually is noted with up to 12 weeks of training , although a measureable strength improvement (due to factors other than muscle hipertrophy) can happen in as little as 2 to 4 weeks . In conclusion, the use of the mixed formula supplement analyzed for 4 weeks was able to change body fat composition and maintain the immune system function but did not promote changes in strength in the recreational weightlifters that participated in this study. It’s probable that a stronger nutrient combination may be able to show significant results in all the variables evaluated in this study. Acknowledgements this website We would like to thanks PROBIOTICA laboratories for providing the samples of the studied products and FIRST Personal Studio, where the evaluations were carried out. References 1. Animal Pak [http://www.universalnutrition.com/store/html/product.cfm?id=161] 2. Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S: American Cell press College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc Mar 2009,41(3):709–31.CrossRef 3. Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, Cooke M, Earnest
CP, Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Kerksick CM, Kleiner SM, Leutholtz B, Lopez H, Lowery LM, Mendel R, Smith A, Spano M, Wildman R, Willoughby Ds, Ziegenfuss TN, Antonio J: ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010,2(7):7.CrossRef 4. Davis JK, Green JM: Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Med 2009,39(10):813–32.CrossRefPubMed 5. Weitzel LR, Sandoval PA, Mayles WJ, Wischmeyer PE: Performance-enhancing sports supplements: role in critical care. Critical care med 2009,37(10 suppl):S400–9.CrossRef 6. Jackson AS, Pollock ML: Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. Br J Nutr 1978,40(3):497–504.CrossRefPubMed 7. Brown LE, Weir JP: Recomendações de procedimentos da sociedade Americana de fisiologia do exercício (ASEP) I: avaliação precisa da força e potência muscular. Rev Bra Cien Mov 2003,11(4):95–110. 8.