However, acceptance and commercial adoption of food irradiation i

However, acceptance and commercial adoption of food irradiation is still low. Consumer groups such as Public Citizen and the Food and Water Watch have opposed irradiation because of the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) in irradiated, lipid-containing foods. The objectives of this study were to measure and to compare the level of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in

ground beef irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays. Beef patties were irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays (Cs-137) at 3 targeted absorbed click here doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The samples were extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus, and the 2-DCB concentration was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05) with irradiation dose for gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties. There was no significant difference in 2-DCB concentration between gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties (P > 0.05) at all targeted doses.”
“Two-dimensional Selleckchem Sapitinib finite element model of Longmenshan area was built on the basis of depth study on geological structure conditions and of rock mechanical properties in Longmenshan area. Tectonic stress field and variation process of Longmenshan fault belt were inversed before the earthquake, in the earthquake and after the earthquake.

The results show that: (1) the direction of maximum main stress in the study area has regionalization, according to stress direction differences before the earthquake, in the earthquake and after the earthquake and can be divided into the southwest region of Houshan fault, the middle section of Houshan fault, AG-881 mouse the region near Yingxiu of central fault, Xiaoyudong area between central fault and Qianshan fault, the region between Qingping village of central fault and Guangming village of Houshan fault, the region between central fracture and Houshan fault in the west of Beichuan. (2) there are local shear stress concentration areas in Longmenshan fault zone before

the earthquake and in the earthquake, especially near Yingxiu but after the earthquake, shear stress distribution is more uniform. Shear stress concentration zone of Longmenshan central fault presents the migration at northeast, the most prominent near Yingxiu.”
“Epidemiological data exist to support a positive association between Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) infection and gynecological cancers; however, putative cellular mechanisms for this association are lacking. Here, we identified Ctr-induced perturbations to host cell phenotypes in vitro that persisted after clearance of infection and could directly contribute to host cell transformation. In particular, human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA expression and catalytic subunit activity were increased in acute infected late passage IMR90E1A cells.

Extraordinary advances have been made in the last decade on the k

Extraordinary advances have been made in the last decade on the knowledge of the receptors and mechanisms used by cells of the innate immunity not only to sense and eliminate the pathogen but also to communicate each other and collaborate with cells of adaptive immunity to mount an effective immune response. The analysis of innate immunity in elderly humans has evidenced that aging has a profound impact on the phenotype and functions of these cells. Thus altered expression and/or function of innate immunity receptors and signal transduction leading find more to defective activation and decreased chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing of

pathogens have been described. The phenotype and function of NK cells from elderly individuals show significant changes that are compatible with remodeling of the different NK subsets, with a decrease in the CD56bright subpopulation and accumulation of the CD56dim cells, in particular those differentiated NK cells that co-express CD57, as well as a decreased expression of activating natural cytotoxicity receptors. These alterations can be responsible of the decreased production of cytokines and Selleckchem SN-38 the lower per-cell cytotoxicity observed in the elderly. Considering the relevance of these cells in the initiation of the immune response, the possibility to reactivate the function of innate immune cells should be considered in order to improve the response to pathogens and to vaccination in the elderly. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“Aim: This study investigates the effects of montelukast sodium (MK) (CysLTLT1 receptor antagonist) on CCl(4) induced hepatopathy on rat.\n\nMaterial and methods: We worked on 4 groups of 10 Wistar male rats each. The groups received as follows: group I (Control group) – saline, group II – MK 5 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days, group III – MK 5 mg/kg/day i.p., 1 day prior to and 4 days concomitantly with CCl(4) p.o., 0.3 ml/Kg/day and group IV – CCl(4), p.o., 0.3 ml/Kg/day for 4 days. One clay after the last administration, samples of blood were taken and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB),

direct bilirubin (DB), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. The histopathological Selleck JQ-EZ-05 exam was performed. We also determined Superoxide dismutase (SOD), MDA, CAT and GSH in liver homogenate.\n\nResults: Compared to group IV, group III exhibited statistically significant lower levels of ALT (318 +/- 15.75 versus 203.14 +/- 10.28 Ul, p < 0.0001), TB (3.16 +/- 0.30 versus 1.99 +/- 0.08 mg/dl, p < 0.0001), MDA in blood and in liver homogenate (4.98 +/- 1.71 versus 2.15 +/- 1.18 nmol/ml, p = 0.0004) and higher levels of SOD and CAT. Histopathologically, group IV presented important macro- and micro-vesicular hepatic steatosis and group III preserved lobular histoarchitecture and had less severe cellular lesions.\n\nConclusion: MK exhibits a partial hepatoprotective effect oil rats treated With CCl(4).

3 fold higher among the FTLD cases than in the controls (OR 2 69,

3 fold higher among the FTLD cases than in the controls (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.09-6.65, p = 0.028). The frequency of mtDNA haplogroups or clusters did not differ between the eoAD cases and controls. The two mtDNA mutations and five POLG1 mutations were absent in the eoAD and FTLD patients. No pathogenic mutations were found in the PEO1 or ANT1 genes.\n\nConclusions: We conclude that the haplogroup cluster IWX was associated with FTLD in

our cohort. Further studies in other ethnically distinct cohorts are needed to clarify the contribution of mtDNA haplogroups to FTLD and AD.”
“Objective: This is a retrospective study comparing 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) pediatric scoring criteria and Stanford scoring criteria of pediatric polysomnograms

to characterize the impact different scoring systems have upon the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing in children.\n\nMethods: The diagnostic and post-treatment nocturnal polysomnograms (PSGs) of children FDA approved Drug Library (age 2-18 years) selleck consecutively referred to an academic sleep clinic for evaluation of suspected sleep disordered breathing (SDB) for 1 year were independently analyzed by a single researcher using AASM and Stanford scoring criteria in a blinded fashion.\n\nResults: A total of 209 (83 girls) children with suspected SDB underwent clinical evaluation and diagnostic PSG. Analysis of the diagnostic PSGs using the Stanford and AASM criteria classified 207 and 39 studies as abnormal, respectively. The AASM scoring criteria classified 19% of subjects as click here having obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) while the Stanford criteria diagnosed 99% of the subjects with OSA who were referred for evaluation of suspected sleep disordered breathing. There was a positive correlation between SDB-related clinical symptoms and anatomic risk factors for SDB. Scatter-plot analyses showed that the AASM apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was not only significantly lower compared to the Stanford AHI but also skewed in distribution.\n\nResults: Ninety-nine children were restudied with PSG (9 were initially diagnosed with SDB with

AASM criteria, whereas all 99 were diagnosed with SDB with Stanford criteria). All 99 children had been treated and had a post-treatment clinical evaluation and post-treatment PSG during the study period. All 99 children evaluated after treatment showed improvement in clinical presentation, Stanford AHI, and oxygen saturation during sleep.\n\nConclusion: The AASM scoring criteria classified 19% of subjects as having USA while the Stanford criteria diagnosed 99% of the subjects with USA who were referred for evaluation of suspected sleep disordered breathing. The primary factor differentiating the AASM and Stanford criteria was the scoring of hypopneas. The AASM definition of hypopnea may be detrimental to the recognition of SDB in children. (C), 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Diaphragmatic hernia is a defect of the diaphragm that causes migration of abdominal contents to the chest cavity.

“Chronic postnatal hyperoxia blunts the hypoxic ventilator

“Chronic postnatal hyperoxia blunts the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in rats, an effect that persists for months after return to normoxia. To determine whether decreased carotid body O-2 sensitivity contributes to this lasting impairment, single-unit chemoafferent nerve and glomus cell calcium responses to hypoxia were recorded from rats reared in 60% O-2 through 7d of age (P7) and then returned to normoxia. Single-unit nerve responses were attenuated by P4 and remained low through P7. After return to normoxia, hypoxic responses were partially recovered within 3d and fully

recovered within 7-8 d (i.e., at P14-15). Glomus cell calcium responses recovered with a similar time course. Hyperoxia altered carotid body mRNA expression for O-2-sensitive K+ channels TASK-1, TASK-3, and BKCa, but only TASK-1 mRNA paralleled HM781-36B changes in chemosensitivity (i.e., downregulation by P7, partial recovery by P14). Collectively, these data do not support a role for reduced O-2 sensitivity of individual chemoreceptor cells in long-lasting reduction of the HVR after developmental hyperoxia. (C) 2011

Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND\n\nRuminants produce large quantities of methane in their rumen as a by-product of microbial digestion of feed. Antibiotics are added to ruminant feed to reduce wasteful production of methane; however, this practice has some downsides. A search for safer and natural feed additives with anti-methanogenic properties is under way. The objective of this research was to examine selected feed additives, plant essential oils and plant extracts for their anti-methanogenic Selleckchem TH-302 GSK3235025 potential in the rumen using an in vitro batch fermentation system.\n\nRESULTS\n\nA significant reduction (P < 0.05) in methane production was observed with nine feed additives (up to 40% reduction), all eight essential oils (up to 75% reduction) and two plant extracts (14% reduction) when compared to their respective controls. Amongst these, only an algal meal high

in docosahexaenoic acid, preparations of Nannochloropsis oculata, calcareous marine algae, yeast metabolites and two tannins did not inhibit microbial gas and volatile acid production.\n\nCONCLUSIONS\n\nThe current study identified some potent dietary ingredients or plant compounds that can assist in developing novel feed additives for methane mitigation from the rumen. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry”
“The Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching in the D.M.D. curriculum. Each tutorial group at HSDM is made up of eight to ten students. The objective of this study was to examine the performance of the students in the tutorial sessions as assessed by the tutor. A total of ten tutorial blocks led by twenty-four tutorial leaders were completed at HSDM between summer 2008 and fall 2009.

In total, we recorded 5546 dead branches attached to 480 living t

In total, we recorded 5546 dead branches attached to 480 living trees. We also recorded the species of lichens growing on 812 of these dead branches. Results The surface area of attached dead branches was generally

of the same magnitude as that of all other wood types combined. Of the 46 lichen species identified growing on dead branches, 42 were generalist species characteristic of conifer bark and four were wood-dependent specialists. We found no significant difference in lichen species composition between dead branches of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, and only small differences in species composition JNK-IN-8 in vitro between different stand types and between study areas. There were no clear differences in species composition between the study areas. Conclusions Although overlooked, attached dead branches constitute a significant proportion of all dead wood available in boreal forests. However, the lichen communities on these branches mainly consist of generalist species. Lichens on attached dead branches thus do not seem to contribute strongly to the species

pool of wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forests.”
“Background and objective: Acne-prone skin, a common skin condition not only in adolescents but also in adults, can significantly influence the affected individual’s quality of life. The aim of this open-label, prospective, single-centre, phase IV study was to investigate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing chlormadinone 2 mg and ethinylestradiol KU-57788 0.03 mg (Belara (R)) on the physiology of acne-prone facial skin in healthy BLZ945 mw women aged 18-37 years.\n\nMethods: Forty-four

Caucasian women requesting hormonal contraception divided into two age groups (group A: 18-27 years; group B: 28-37 years) were treated with chlormadinone/ethinylestradiol for six menstrual cycles. During each treatment phase, each subject took one tablet per day for 21 consecutive days, followed by a 7-day pill-free interval. Medication was commenced on the first day of menses. Changes in skin parameters were evaluated in terms of the clinical sum score (the primary outcome variable, calculated from the number of comedones, the number of papules/papulopustules, and the sebum secretion state), the evaluation of the pore size using standardized photography, and a range of biophysical in vivo measurements, assessed at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks.\n\nResults: In both age groups, facial skin condition as quantified by the clinical sum score improved significantly after three and six treatment cycles, with reduced numbers of acne lesions (comedones and papules/papulopustules) and a reduction in seborrhoea. Moreover, there was a statistically significant decrease in pore size. Biophysical evaluations confirmed favourable effects of the medication on diverse skin parameters.

However, the way in which these functions interact is poorly unde

However, the way in which these functions interact is poorly understood. Subjects (N = 30) viewed threatening or neutral images that could be either animate

(facial expressions) or inanimate (objects) in the context of a dot probe task. The amygdala showed responses to both emotional and animacy information, SBE-β-CD inhibitor but no emotion by stimulus-type interaction; i.e., emotional face and object stimuli, when matched for arousal and valence, generate comparable amygdala activity relative to neutral face and object stimuli. Additionally, a habituation effect was not seen in amygdala; however, increased amygdala activity was observed for incongruent relative to congruent negative trials in second vs. first exposures. Furthermore, medial fusiform gyrus showed increased response to inanimate stimuli, while superior temporal sulcus showed increased response to animate stimuli. Greater functional connectivity between bilateral amygdala and medial fusiform gyrus was observed to negative vs. neutral objects, but not to fearful vs. neutral faces. The current data suggest that the amygdala is responsive to animate and emotional stimuli. Additionally, these data suggest that the interaction

between the various functions of the amygdala may need to be considered simultaneously NVP-LDE225 supplier to fully understand how they interact. Moreover, they suggest category-specific modulation of medial fusiform cortex as a function of emotion.”
“The meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-BDH) from S. marcescens H30 is responsible for converting acetoin into 2,3-butanediol during sugar fermentation. selleck compound Inactivation of the meso-BDH encoded by budC gene does not completely abolish 2,3-butanediol production, which suggests that another similar enzyme involved in 2,3-butanediol formation exists in S. marcescens H30. In the present study, a glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) encoded by gldA gene from S. marcescens H30 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified and characterized for its properties. In vitro

conversion indicated that the purified GDH could catalyze the interconversion of (3S)-acetoin/meso-2,3-butanediol and (3R)-acetoin/(2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol. (2S,3S)-2,3-Butanediol was not a substrate for the GDH at all. Kinetic parameters of the GDH enzyme showed lower K (m) value and higher catalytic efficiency for (3S/3R)-acetoin in comparison to those for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, implying its physiological role in favor of 2,3-butanediol formation. Maximum activity for reduction of (3S/3R)-acetoin and oxidations of meso-2,3-butanediol and glycerol was observed at pH 8.0, while it was pH 7.0 for diacetyl reduction. The enzyme exhibited relative high thermotolerance with optimum temperature of 60 A degrees C in the oxidation-reduction reactions. Over 60 % of maximum activity was retained at 70 A degrees C.

Patients and methods – The studied population included 125 H

\n\nPatients and methods. – The studied population included 125 HIV positives patients from the infectious diseases unit. The detection of the hepatitis B and C was carried out using serologic test (Elisa-Biorad). The molecular detection of the HGV was realized by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).\n\nResults. – The prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B (antibodies and/or antigens) and C (antibodies) was respectively 32.25% and 26.4%. HGV RNA was detected in 36.8% of the studied population.

The unprotected intercourse was the predominant risk factor of the HGV contamination. Among the HGV (+) patients, 28.2% were carriers of the hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV).\n\nConclusion. – This work A-1155463 concentration was the first study enabling to assess the coinfection rate of viral hepatitis B, C and G with HIV patients (+) in Rabta Hospital. The regular screening of HGV is recommended regarding its high frequency and the possibility of its pathogenic role. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Previous research has shown that heavy cannabis

users develop tolerance to the impairing effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on neurocognitive IPI145 functions. Animal studies suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may also produce cross-tolerance for the impairing effects of alcohol, but supportive data in humans is scarce.\n\nThe present study was designed to assess tolerance and cross-tolerance to the neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users.\n\nTwenty-one heavy cannabis users participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way study. Subjects underwent three alcohol-dosing conditions that were designed to achieve a steady blood alcohol Selleck ALK inhibitor concentration of about 0, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/ml during a 5-h time window. In addition, subjects smoked a THC cigarette (400 mu g/kg) at 3 h post-onset of alcohol dosing during every alcohol

condition. Performance tests were conducted repeatedly between 0 and 7 h after onset of drinking and included measures of perceptual motor control (critical tracking task), dual task processing (divided-attention task), motor inhibition (stop-signal task), and cognition (Tower of London).\n\nAlcohol significantly impaired critical tracking, divided attention, and stop-signal performance. THC generally did not affect task performance. However, combined effects of THC and alcohol on divided attention were bigger than those by alcohol alone.\n\nIn conclusion, the present study generally confirms that heavy cannabis users develop tolerance to the impairing effects of THC on neurocognitive task performance. Yet, heavy cannabis users did not develop cross-tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol, and the presence of the latter even selectively potentiated THC effects on measures of divided attention.

It discusses the pathophysiology of the disease, as well as the d

It discusses the pathophysiology of the disease, as well as the diagnostic challenges and therapeutic management. The incidence of the disease and screening recommendations are reviewed. The article also emphasizes the importance of correct diagnosis and treatment options. This article is intended for surgeons in all specialties and levels of training.”
“A simple and robust isotope

dilution mass spectrometry-based assay was developed for the determination of free cysteine and glutathione (GSH) in aquatic insects. Several experimental parameters were evaluated and optimized to provide specific and sensitive detection of both VX-809 supplier compounds by in situ derivatization with N-ethylmaleimide followed by acid alkylation quenching and reverse-phased liquid chromatography coupled with selected reaction monitoring. For both targets, the assay was evaluated over a concentration selleck screening library range of 0.313 to 320 mu M and was demonstrated to have a quantitative dynamic range spanning nearly three orders of magnitude, with lower limits of quantification being 0.330 mu M for GSH and 0.370 mu M for cysteine. Additionally, measurements were observed to be highly reproducible over the course of several days. When applied to the analysis of four different species of insects, large biological variation between and within species was observed. Different feeding regimens were also

tested within two species of insects but statistical comparisons revealed no significant difference in the levels of either compound.”
“Non-consumption of fish during summer months has become very common practice in the country. This behavior is attributed to the nutritional changes in fish due to onset of its breeding

season. Studies were therefore, planned to assess the nutritional variations that might occur with the change of season and stage of fish. Three fish species viz. VX 809 M. seenghala, W. attu and C. morulius were collected from pond area of Trimmu Headworks built over the junction of River Chenab and River Jhelum in Punjab, Pakistan. Proximate analysis data revealed that moisture, dry matter, ash and organic matter contents did not differ among species irrespective of type of species and season of the year. There was slight decrease in % ether extract in W. attu, little increase in M. seenghala but significant increase (p<0.05) in C. morulius when they moved from summer to winter. Crude protein contents remained same in both seasons in M. seenghala and W. attu. Drastic decrease in crude protein was however, observed in C. morulius when it entered in winter. Values of condition factors were similar in M. seenghala and C. morulius but were quite lower (p<0.05) than W. attu. The latter species also showed significant increases in condition factor on the start of winter season. When nutritional values of these species adult were compared with herbivorous species viz.

The three main themes of the research method were: the administra

The three main themes of the research method were: the administration of tasks, leadership style and professional values. We integrated the organisational theories of Mintzberg, Bolman and Deal as well as Sorensen to support and clarify the data collection process and analyses. A cross-case analysis and an exploratory

contextual analysis relating the leadership style of the pharmacy owner to the ITAS provision were applied to the collected data. Conclusion The developed buy 3-Methyladenine qualitative exploratory multi-case study research method was satisfactory with regard to achieving nuanced and in-depth results of some relationships between structural and process elements of provision of cognitive services.

The research method can be considered an important supplement to the existing literature on the sustainability of cognitive services.”
“A series of visual-acoustic surveys were carried out in the Mediterranean Sea between 2003 and 2007 from RV ‘Song of the Whale’. Almost 21,000 km of trackline were surveyed between the longitudes of 14 degrees W and 36 degrees E with an emphasis on regions with low survey effort. Survey tracklines were designed to provide even coverage probability with random start points. Ten cetacean species were positively identified (sperm whale, fin whale, Cuvier’s beaked whale, false killer whale, long-finned pilot S3I-201 whale, Risso’s dolphin, common bottlenose dolphin, rough-toothed dolphin, striped

dolphin and short-beaked common dolphin). Several of these species, plus sei whale and harbour porpoise, were also encountered in the Atlantic contiguous area (the entrance waters of the Mediterranean between the Iberian Peninsula and north-west Morocco). These Entinostat mw surveys expand and clarify the known distributions of cetaceans within the Mediterranean basin. New species documented from Libyan waters include sperm whale, striped dolphin and rough-toothed dolphin. False killer whales and rough-toothed dolphins were documented for the first time off Cyprus. Live harbour porpoises were seen for the first time on Morocco’s Atlantic seaboard. It is suggested that the status of rough-toothed dolphins in the Mediterranean be revised from visitor to regular species. Substantial new information on encounter rates is now available for the planning of a basin-wide systematic survey of cetaceans within the Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic waters.”
“The immune response to Echinococcus granulosus in sheep has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to increase the information on the physiopathology of E. granulosus and the immune response elicited in sheep. Animals were experimentally inoculated with three different doses of E.


NOX4 is critical for modulation of the pul


NOX4 is critical for modulation of the pulmonary myofibroblast phenotype in IPF, probably by modulating the response to TGF beta 1 and PDGF.”
“The aim of the present study was to compare an ‘open’ vitrification protocol to a ‘closed’ vitrification protocol for mature human oocytes. A prospective comparison between fresh and sibling vitrified oocytes and a retrospective comparison between the two vitrification protocols were performed. For SYN-117 clinical trial recruited patients undergoing an IVF cycle, two or three fresh oocytes were inseminated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and the remaining three or more oocytes were vitrified according to manufacturer’s instructions with a ‘closed’ or an ‘open’ vitrification system. After an unsuccessful fresh cycle, oocytes were warmed and inseminated

with ICSI. Embryological parameters were recorded and compared between fresh and sibling vitrified oocytes (intrapatient) as well as between the two vitrification techniques (interpatient). Oocytes vitrified with the ‘closed’ system showed significantly lower fertilization and cleavage rates and a reduction in the quantity and quality of obtained embryos compared with fresh sibling oocytes GSK2126458 research buy (P < 0.001). On the contrary, the same parameters were similar between fresh and sibling oocytes vitrified using the ‘open’ system. The retrospective comparison between the two vitrification protocols also showed a significant increase in clinical pregnancy rate and a reduced proportion of cancelled cycles using the ‘open’ system (P < 0.01). (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To study the effect of water deficit and

N fertilizer on some morphological traits, yield and yield components of sunflower CV. Progress, a study was carried out as a split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications selleck screening library in research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch, Iran in 2009. In this study, the irrigation was the main plot at three levels including supplying 100, 67 and 33% of plant water requirement (PWR) and N fertilizer was the sub-plot at four levels of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg N/ha. The results of analysis of variance showed that irrigation significantly affected plant height, stein diameter, head diameter, seed number per head, 1000-seed weight and seed yield, and N significantly affected all morphological traits, yield and yield components, but the interactions between irrigation and N level significantly affected none of the studied traits. The treatment of supplying 100% of PWR produced the highest seed number per head (680.43), 1000-seed weight (46.58 g) and seed yield (3567.