Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University selleck inhibitor (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR)
up to a fast fluence of at least 10(21) n/cm(2) (E bigger than 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along Vorinostat with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors
for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.”
“BACKGROUND: Dyspnea on exertion is a common and debilitating symptom, yet evidence for the relative value of cardiac and pulmonary tests for the evaluation of chronic dyspnea among adults without known cardiac or pulmonary disease is limited. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants aged 45 to 84 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease from 6 communities; participants with clinical pulmonary disease were excluded from this report. Dyspnea on exertion
was assessed via structured interview. Tests included electrocardiograms, cardiac computed tomography (CT) for coronary Selleckchem HIF inhibitor artery calcium, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry, percent emphysema (percent of lung regions smaller than -950 HU) on CT, inflammatory biomarkers, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates of dyspnea after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, anxiety, and leg pain. RESULTS: Among 1969 participants without known cardiopulmonary disease, 9% had dyspnea. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P smaller than .001), NT-proBNP (P = .004), and percent emphysema on CT (P = .004) provided independent information on the probability of self-reported dyspnea. Associations with the FEV1 were stronger among smokers and participants with other recent respiratory symptoms or seasonal allergies; associations with NT-proBNP were present only among participants with coexisting symptoms of lower-extremity edema.