\n\nRESULTS: No periprocedural complications or adverse events during follow-up were observed. Seven patients received complete ablation and two patients only partial ablation. Five patients responded to the treatment with a reduction in day-time 24-hour ambulatory BP from 158/94 +/- 13/9 mmHg to 139/82 +/- 10/8 mmHg (p < 0.05) at the one month follow-up and a reduction in the number of antihypertensive drugs from 5.4 +/- 1.6 to 3.4 +/- 0.9 (p < 0.05). BP in the remaining four patients was not significantly changed and antihypertensive therapy was not changed.\n\nCONCLUSION: Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation is a feasible and in several cases also effective treatment option
for patients with resistant hypertension. Adequately designed controlled trials LY2157299 nmr are needed to assess the long-term safety and the full potential of this treatment.”
“It is desirable that polymers used for the
fabrication of prosthetic implants promote 3 biological functions Such as Cellular adhesion, differentiation and viability In this study, We have used plasma immersion ion implantation (Pill) to modify the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), thereby modulating the binding mechanism of collagen The amount of collagen bound to the polymer surface following PIII-treatment was similar to that bound by non-covalent physisorption In a manner consistent with previous enzyme and tropoelastin binding data, the collagen bound to the Pill-treated Ganetespib PTFE Surface was resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SIDS) elution whilst collagen
bound to the untreated surface was fully removed. This demonstrates the capability of PIII-treated Mocetinostat surfaces to covalently attach collagen without employing chemical linking molecules Only the collagen bound to the PIII-treated PTFE Surface supported human dermal fibroblast attachment and spreading This indicates that collagen on the PIII-treated surface possesses increased adhesive activity as compared to that on the untreated Surface Cell adhesion was inhibited by EDTA when the collagen was bound to Pill-treated PTFE, as expected for integrin involvement Additionally this adhesion was sensitive to the conformation of the bound collagen. Increased actin cytoskeletal assembly was observed on cells spreading onto collagen-coated Pill-treated PTFE compared to the collagen-coated untreated PTFE. These data demonstrate the retention of collagen’s biological properties following its attachment to PIII-treated PTFE, Suggesting advantages for tissue engineering and prosthetic design (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved”
“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver neoplasm and fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The Survival for patients with advanced HCC is extremely poor. This is largely attributed to the lack of effective screening methods, advanced stage at presentation, limited utility of surgical intervention and ineffective medical therapy.
We undertook pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive DNAs. Complete sequences from two onion BACs were AT rich (64.8%) and revealed long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons, similar to other larger plant genomes. Random BACs were end sequenced and only 3 of 460 ends showed significant (e < -25) non-organellar hits to the protein databases. The BAC-end sequences were AT rich (63.4%), similar to the completely sequenced BACs. A total of 499,997 bp of onion ABT-737 price genomic DNA yielded an estimated mean density of one gene per 168 kb, among the
lowest reported to date. Methyl filtration was highly effective relative to random shotgun reads in reducing frequencies of anonymous sequences from 82 to 55% and increasing non-organellar protein hits from 4 to 42%. Our results revealed no evidence for gene-dense regions and indicated that sequencing of methyl-filtered genomic fragments should be an efficient approach to reveal genic sequences in the onion genome.”
“Deficits in social and communication behaviors are common features of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the molecular and cellular substrates of these higher order brain functions are not well understood. Here we report that specific alterations in social and communication behaviors in mice
occur as a result of loss of the EPAC2 gene, which encodes a protein kinase A-independent cAMP target. Epac2-deficient mice exhibited robust deficits in social selleck inhibitor interactions and ultrasonic vocalizations, but displayed normal olfaction, working and reference memory, motor abilities, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. Epac2-deficient mice displayed abnormal columnar organization in the learn more anterior cingulate cortex, a region implicated in social behavior in humans, but not in somatosensory cortex. In vivo two-photon imaging revealed reduced dendritic
spine motility and density on cortical neurons in Epac2-deficient mice, indicating deficits at the synaptic level. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the molecular and cellular substrates of social and communication behavior.”
“Aims: This study aimed to identify the involvement of class 3 semaphorins (Sema3) and receptors, neuropilins (Np1 and Np2) and plexins (A1-A4) in breast cancer development and angiogenesis.\n\nMethods and results: We quantified and correlated Sema3A, Sema3B, Sema3F and their known receptors and coreceptors Plexin-A1, Plexin-A3, Np1 and Np2 in sections of normal human breast, benign and premalignant hyperplastic tissue, pre-invasive and invasive cancer, and compared these findings with our previously published data on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) in the same samples.
Follow-up examinations including clinical assessment and Doppler ultrasound imaging were performed at 3 months and every 6 months thereafter. Findings demonstrated bypass patency and healing of the covered defect in all cases. Outcome in this initial series demonstrates the clinical feasibility of the new BF reconstruction technique, which allows revascularization and coverage of tissue defects using a one-piece anatomic unit.”
“The aim of this paper was to analyze
energy-related properties of forestry and agricultural 3 wastes for energy production purposes, and to compare them with fossil fuels. The forestry wastes used were red cedar, Eucalyptus, and Pinus wood shavings. The agricultural wastes analyzed were rice husk, coffee wastes, sugar cane bagasse, maize harvesting wastes, and bamboo cellulose pulp. The forestry wastes presented more suitable properties for bioenergy production
find more than the agricultural wastes. Rabusertib purchase Desirable energetic properties were found for coffee wastes. The opposite was verified for rice husks. Among the biomass studied, coffee wastes presented the highest equivalent in fossil fuel volume and hence may lead to the highest decrease in CO2 emissions by fossil fuels used in Brazil for steam and heat production. The results suggests that CO2 benefits can be obtained if bioenergy is generated in the same locale where biomass is produced, avoiding CO2 cost of logistics and leading to greater end-use efficiency. The present work promotes the widespread use of different lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production and gives useful information for the planning and the control of power plants using biomass.”
“Erythrocytes have an environment of continuous pro-oxidant generation due to the presence of hemoglobin (Hb), which represents an additional and quantitatively significant source of superoxide (O-2(center dot-)) generation in biological systems. To counteract oxidative stress, erythrocytes have a self-sustaining antioxidant defense system. Thus, red blood cells uniquely function to protect Hb via a selective barrier
allowing gaseous and other ligand transport as well as providing antioxidant protection not only to themselves but also to other tissues and organs in the body. Sickle Y-27632 clinical trial hemoglobin molecules suffer repeated polymerization/depolymerization generating greater amounts of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to a cyclic cascade characterized by blood cell adhesion, hemolysis, vaso-occlusion, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In other words, sickle cell disease is intimately linked to a pathophysiologic condition of multiple sources of pro-oxidant processes with consequent chronic and systemic oxidative stress. For this reason, newer therapeutic agents that can target oxidative stress may constitute a valuable means for preventing or delaying the development of organ complications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Four SPs were derived from hemolysin of Escherichia coli, RTX protein of V. cholerae, hemolysin of V. anguillarum, zinc-metalloprotease of V. anguillarum, respectively, and their abilities to support secretion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in an attenuated
V. anguillarum strain MVAV6203 were assayed. Immunodetection of GFP showed that the capability of the tested signal leaders to direct secretion of GFP varied greatly. Although all the four signal peptide-fused GFPs could be expressed correctly and trapped intracellularly in recombinant strains, only the EmpA signal peptide could confer efficient Selleck SC79 secretion to GFP. For the investigation of its potential application in live bacteria carrier vaccines, a heterologous protein EseB of Edwardsiella tarda was fused to the SP (empA) antigen-delivery system and introduced into the strain MVAV6203. Further analysis of EseB demonstrated that the constructed SP (empA) antigen-delivery check details system could be used to secrete foreign protein
in attenuated V. anguillarum and be available for carrier vaccines development.”
“(Z)-2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-5-[4-(mesyl)benzylidene]-4H-imidazol-4-one mesilate (ZLJ-601) is an imidazolone COX/5-LOX inhibitor, which has excellent anti-inflammatory activity with an improved gastrointestinal safety profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of ZLJ-601 in Sprague-Dawley rats. After intravenous or intragastric administration to rats, the concentration of ZLJ-601 in plasma, bile, urine, feces and various types of tissues was detected by LC-MS. We also conducted the identification of metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry. After the intravenous administration, the t(1/2) ranged click here from 38.71 to 42.62 min and the AUC increased in a
dose-proportional manner. After oral dosing, the plasma level of ZLJ-601 peaked at 28.33 min, having a C-max value of 0.26 mg/l, and the bioavailability was only 4.92%. The highest tissue concentration of ZLJ-601 was observed in lung and kidney, but it was not found in brain. The majority of unchanged ZLJ-601 was excreted in urine (similar to 35.87%) within 36 h. Two main metabolites are the hydroxylation product and the glucuronide conjugate of the hydroxylation product. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Spatial diversity gradients are a pervasive feature of life on Earth. We examined a global ocean circulation, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem model that indicated a decrease in phytoplankton diversity with increasing latitude, consistent with observations of many marine and terrestrial taxa. In the modeled subpolar oceans, seasonal variability of the environment led to competitive exclusion of phytoplankton with slower growth rates and lower diversity.
inornata. Body areas sampled included 6 locations from the fish epaxial and hypaxial muscles and 1 from each of the adductor mandibulae (cheek muscle), the cranial epaxial muscle, and the muscle of the caudal peduncle. Replicate samples were weighed and the number of plasmodia in each was recorded to determine the average density of plasmodia per gram of muscle in each area. The average density of plasmodia among fish was highly variable and was not correlated with fish size, age, or the homogeneity of distribution. Although the anterior hypaxial muscle (belly flap) was significantly more infected and the caudal peduncle less infected, when compared to all other areas examined in all fish combined,
10 out of 15 fish displayed an otherwise homogeneous distribution when data were analyzed fish by fish. Among the 5 fish with a nonuniform plasmodia distribution, 3 had a significantly higher burden in the belly flap, 1 in the area just posterior Dinaciclib concentration to the belly flap, and 1 in the cheek muscle. Based on these results, it was determined that hypaxial, caudal peduncle, and cheek muscles Kinase Inhibitor Library cost contributed greatly to the overall variation in plasmodia distribution observed whereas any portion of the epaxial muscle, as well
as the cranial muscle, would be the least-variable areas to sample to determine the status of infection in any given fish.”
“The cause of fracture of the femoral neck after hip resurfacing is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the role of avascular necrosis we compared 19 femoral heads retrieved at revision for fracture of the femoral neck and 13 retrieved for other reasons.\n\nWe developed a new technique of assessing avascular necrosis in the femoral head by determining the 123 percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae present. Femoral heads retrieved as controls at total hip replacement for
osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis had 9% (SD 4; n = 13) and 85% (SD 5; n = 10, p < 0.001) empty lacunae, respectively.\n\nIn the fracture group the percentage of empty lacunae was 71% (SD 22); in the other group it was 21% (SD 13). The differences between GSK2126458 supplier the groups were highly significant (p < 0.001).\n\nWe conclude that fracture after resurfacing of the hip is associated with a significantly greater percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae within the trabecular bone. This indicates established avascular necrosis and suggests that damage to the blood supply at the time of surgery is a potent risk factor for fracture of the femoral neck after hip resurfacing.”
“Background and objectives Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Middle East (ME) is projected to increase substantially by 2020. There are no large studies on the impact of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the region. This is a report on the association of nine risk factors with AMI in the ME. Methods and results As part of the INTERHEART (IH) study, we enrolled 1364 cases of first AMI and 1525 matching controls from eight ME countries.
We detected a total of 27 QTLs that accounted for 2.49-8.54% of the total phenotypic variance. Nine common QTLs across multi-marker joint analysis and composite interval mapping showed high stability, while one QTL was environment-specific and three were epistatic. We also identified several 4 genomic segments that are associated with multiple traits. Our results describe the genetic basis of rice tiller development, enable further marker-assisted selection in rice cultivar development, and provide useful information for rice production management.”
“The prime-boost response induced by
different combinations of four H5N1 vaccines (NIBRG-14 (clade 1), Indo05/2005(H5N1)/PR8-IBCDC-RG2 (clade 2.1), A/Bar-Headed Goose/Qinhai Lake/1A/05 SJ163222 (clade 2.2), and Anhui01/2005(H5N1)-PR8-IBCDC-RG5 JIB-04 molecular weight (clade 2.3.4)) was evaluated in mice. Clade 1-primed BALB/c mice showed a booster response find more to all of the other three H5N1 vaccines. Cade 2.2
vaccine was also a good priming vaccine. However, mice primed with clade 2.1 or clade 2.3.4 vaccine did not respond to booster injection with clade 1 vaccine, suggesting that priming might actually inhibit the booster response with some combinations of vaccines belonging to different clades. Analysis of the mechanism involved showed that lymphocytes from primed mice secreted comparable amounts of cytokines with any combination of priming and booster vaccines. Therefore, impairment of B cell immunity specific to certain booster strains may have Dinaciclib mw been involved. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chemotherapy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy is a severe illness that has occurred in a small number of patients treated with
carboplatin and combination of docetaxel and trastuzumab chemotherapy. We describe herein the case of a patient with stage IIB breast cancer who developed thrombotic microangiopathy after five cycles of carboplatin, docetaxel, and trastuzumab.”
“We report a 59-year-old woman who had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) with hypothyroidism. A solid hypervascularized nodule in the right lobe was detected by color flow doppler sonography (CFDS). Thyroid (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy revealed a hot area in the right lobe. After three months, thyroid function tests also revealed hypothyroidism and (131)I scintigraphy was similar to the previous scintigraphy. No nodular or hypervascularized lesion in the right lobe could be identified at the sixth month of L-T4 substitution therapy. In conclusion, HT may present as a single hot nodule and hypothyroidism. Imaging findings of HT should be carefully evaluated for the precise diagnosis.”
“Objective: We investigated the reasons and rates of attrition in knee osteoarthritis trials through a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials.\n\nMethods: Randomized trials were identified by searches conducted in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
Driving with the left arm in an above-the-elbow thumb spica splint had the highest perceived difficulty (median, 8.0) and lowest perceived safety (median, 3.0).\n\nConclusions: Driving performance as measured with a standardized track and scoring system was significantly degraded with splint immobilization of the left arm. Further studies are required to determine the effect of arm immobilization on normal driving conditions.”
“Background and purpose
of the study: The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.\n\nMethods: Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received Thiazovivin cost daily i.p. injections of chicory extract
(125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days). Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.\n\nResults: During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of LY2090314 cost TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05). Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated early-stage histone deacetylase activity diabetic rats.\n\nConclusions: Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned) and long-term (28 days, in this study) effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful
as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.”
“Many home-based and leisure activities can generate hazardous respirable exposures. Routine domestic activities and a variety of hobbies, 123 avocations, and leisure pursuits have been associated with a spectrum of respiratory tract disorders. Indoor environments present a special risk for high-intensity exposures and adverse health effects. There are important knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence of specific health hazards within and across communities, exposure-response effects, population and individual susceptibilities, best management strategies, the adverse health effects of mixed exposures, and long-term clinical outcomes following exposures.
Beneficial effect of BCAs may be due to the resistance acquired by the plant and reduction in the population of the pathogen caused by their colonization. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been applied to fabricate MgO thin films under atmospheric pressure. In this work, to fabricate highly crystalline MgO thin films at low temperature, the effects of ozone gas (O-3), aqueous ammonia (NH3), and a combination of O-3 and NH3 on the crystallization
temperature were studied by comparing samples grown under a standard condition of inactive gas such as argon (Ar). It was ACY-1215 in vitro clarified that the 3 crystallization temperature was decreased from 450 to 400 degrees C by the assistance of O-3 and the crystallinity was improved by the addition of NH3. The growth of higher crystallinity MgO thin films at temperatures above 400 degrees C was possible by the combination of O-3 and NH3, which caused stronger enhancement of the crystallization temperature and crystallinity. The causes of these effects were analyzed thermodynamically, and it was clarified that the results were due to the activated oxygen sources and the stability level of precursor selleckchem materials in the solution.
(c) 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Background and aims: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which the patients can exhibit some behavioural disturbances in addition to cognitive impairment. The aims of the present study Dorsomorphin in vitro were to investigate the relationship between severity and rate of decline of the cognitive and behavioural impairment in patient with AD.\n\nMethods: 54 AD patients were assessed at baseline and after 12 months with the Mental Deterioration Battery (MDB), the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog)
and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-10).\n\nResults: MDB was more accurate than ADAS-Cog in the early diagnosis of AD. Conversely, ADAS-Cog was more sensitive at revealing the progression of cognitive decline. Depression, Apathy and Anxiety are the most frequent and severe behavioural disturbances at baseline. At follow-up Delusions and Irritability increased significantly. Significant correlations were observed between severity of cognitive impairment and behavioural disorders both at baseline and in the progression rate passing from TO to T12.\n\nConclusions: Severity and progression rate of behavioural and cognitive alterations in patients with AD are significantly associated.”
“Fluorescence spectrophotometry has been proposed as a quick screening technique for the measurement of naphthenic acids (NAs). To evaluate the feasibility of this application, the fluorescence emission spectra of NAs extracted from three oil sands process water sources were compared with that of commercial NAs.
“Bisphosphonates are widely prescribed and highly effective at limiting the bone loss that occurs In many disorders characterized by Increased www.selleckchem.com/products/dinaciclib-sch727965.html osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, Including senile osteoporosis
In both men and women, glucocorticoid-associated osteoporosis, and malignancies metastatic to bone. Although they are generally well tolerated, potential adverse effects may limit bisphosphonate use In some patients. Optimal use of bisphosphonates for osteoporosis requires adequate calcium and vitamin D Intake before and during therapy. The World Health Organization fracture risk assessment algorithm Is currently available to determine absolute fracture risk in patients with low bone mass and Is a useful tool for clinicians In Identifying patients most likely to benefit from pharmacological Intervention to limit fracture risk. This fracture risk estimate may facilitate shared decision making, especially when patients are wary of the rare but serious adverse effects that have recently been described for this class of drugs. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84(7):632-638″
“Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic factors predicting remission and subsequent disease relapse in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC)
greater than 60 years of age. Materials and Methods: The institute thyroid cancer database had 4370 patients with DTC, of which 447 (10%) were aged bigger than 60. However, 9 patients were excluded Gamma-secretase inhibitor due to follow-up less than 1 year. The prognostic factors NVP-LDE225 order in the remaining 438 patients were studied. Results: Among the 438 patients, 311 (71%) had only loco-regional disease (M-0) and 127 (29%) had distant metastases (M-1) at the time of initial presentation. The host factors predictive of distant metastases at presentation were female gender, primary tumor size ( bigger than 4 cm), follicular histology, and extra-thyroidal extension. Among M-0 patients, 195 (63%) achieved complete remission while only 12 (9%) M-1 patients did so. Average number of radioactive iodine (I-131) doses administered
to achieve complete remission was 2.3 (range, 1-6) and the mean cumulative dose was 3404 MBq (range, 3 925-46,250 MBq). In multivariate logistic regression among M-0 patients, follicular histology, nodal metastases, and surgical treatment lesser than total/near-total thyroidectomy and among M-1 patients, site of distant metastases (skeletal and multiple sites) were independent factors predicting non-remission. Among the patients (both M-0 and M-1) who achieved remission, factors associated with disease recurrence were primary tumor size ( bigger than 4 cm), nodal metastases, pulmonary metastases, and non-remission after first dose of radioactive iodine and were associated with greater chances of disease relapse.
Abberations in the Wnt
signalling pathway have been linked to many human cancers, including breast cancer, and appear to be associated with more metastatic and aggressive types of cancer. Here, our aim was to investigate if this key pathway was involved in acquired Tamoxifen resistance, and could be targeted therapeutically.\n\nMethods: An in vitro model of acquired Tamoxifen resistance (named TamR) was generated by growing the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) positive MCF7 breast cancer cell line in increasing concentrations of Tamoxifen (up to 5 uM). Alterations in the Wnt signalling pathway and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) EPZ-6438 order in response to Tamoxifen and treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, IWP-2 were measured via quantitative Ulixertinib supplier RT-PCR (qPCR) and TOP/FOP Wnt reporter assays. Resistance to Tamoxifen, and effects of IWP-2 treatment were determined by MTT proliferation assays.\n\nResults: TamR cells exhibited increased Wnt signalling
as measured via the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assays. Genes associated with both the beta-catenin 3 dependent (AXIN2, MYC, CSNK1A1) and independent arms (ROR2, JUN), as well as general Wnt secretion (PORCN) of the Wnt signalling pathway were upregulated in the TamR cells compared to the parental MCF7 cell line. Treatment of the TamR cell line with human recombinant Wnt3a (rWnt3a) further increased the resistance of both MCF7 and TamR Akt inhibitor cells to the anti-proliferative effects of Tamoxifen treatment. TamR cells demonstrated increased expression of EMT markers (VIM, TWIST1, SNAI2) and decreased CDH1, which may contribute to their resistance to Tamoxifen. Treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, IWP-2 inhibited cell proliferation and markers of EMT.\n\nConclusions: These data support the role of the Wnt signalling pathway in acquired resistance to Tamoxifen. Further research into the mechanism by which activated Wnt signalling
inhibits the effects of Tamoxifen should be undertaken. As a number of small molecules targeting the Wnt pathway are currently in pre-clinical development, combinatorial treatment with endocrine agents and Wnt pathway inhibitors may be a useful therapeutic option in the future for a subset of breast cancer patients.”
“Aims Central sleep apnoea (CSA) and increased serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration have each been associated with adverse prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nocturnal hypoxaemia due to CSA and the serum EPO concentration in patients with HF.\n\nMethods and results Heart failure subjects (n = 33) and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosis of CSA and identification and quantification of hypoxaemia. Blood collection for measurement of EPO was performed immediately post-PSG. For the analysis, HF subjects were dichotomized into subgroups defined by the presence or absence of CSA and by HF severity.