Conclusions: In the studied population, DLG5 R30Q was associated

Conclusions: In the studied population, DLG5 R30Q was associated with all forms of IBD. An elevated presence of the R30Q variant was observed in all members of a familial IBD registry. This association of the R30Q variant with IBD was male-specific.”
“Circumscribed Raf inhibitor drugs palmar or plantar hypokeratosis was first described by Perez et al in 2002 as a unique entity of the skin in which they reported 10 patients who presented with well-circumscribed areas of erythematous depressed or eroded skin mostly over the thenar or hypothenar eminences of the palms and less commonly on the soles. Histologically, the lesions demonstrated an abrupt drop-off in the cornified layer

resulting in a broad area of hypokeratosis. Perez et al hypothesized that these lesions were a distinctive epidermal malformation. There have been several reports since, some of which implicate trauma as an etiologic agent; however, the exact etiology remains unclear. The authors present the first case of circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis on a nonacral site (chest of a 63-year-old man) with novel histological features, including granular parakeratosis and evidence of trauma (subepidermal fibrin and ulcerations).”
“The glutathione

S-transferases (GST) play important roles in the detoxification of microcystins (MCs). For better understanding of the responses of GST isforms to MCs exposure, informations about the effects of MCs on GSTs are necessary. In this selleck compound experiment, we cloned the full length cDNA of 14 GST isoforms (GST alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, theta,

zeta, and microsomal GST) from Wistar rat. The mRNA abundance of each rat GST isoform in the liver, kidney, and testis was analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. Multiple GST isoforms were constitutively expressed in all examined organs, but Nutlin-3 inhibitor some isoforms were expressed at higher level in one organ than in others. The relative changes of the mRNA abundance in the liver, kidney, and testis of Wiatar rat i.v. injected with crude MCs extract at dose of 1LD(50) were also analyzed. Generally, the expression of most GSTs in the liver and testis was suppressed while that in kidney was induced after being injected with MCs. It is suggested that the transcription of GST isoforms varied in different ways within an organ and between organs of Wistar rat exposed to MCs. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 26: 187-194, 2011.”
“Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, can affect nearly every organ system in the body. In particular, skin manifestations of secondary syphilis are common but nonspecific and can be a true masquerader of other skin disorders. Concomitant infection with HIV has been increasing and may cause even more unusual skin presentations. We present a patient with the atypical combination of palmoplantar keratoderma and ocular symptoms that closely resembled reactive arthritis (or Reiter’s syndrome).

“Penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic


“Penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic

fungus that causes severe human immunodeficiency virus-related opportunistic infection in endemic areas of Southeast Asia and has rarely been reported in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We report here the case of an Australian renal transplant patient who presented with disseminated P. marneffei infection shortly after a 10-day holiday to Vietnam, and review all previously published cases of penicilliosis associated with renal transplantation. This is the first reported case, to our knowledge, of P. marneffei infection in an SOT recipient acquired during travel to an endemic country, and highlights the importance of an accurate travel history when opportunistic infection is suspected, as well as giving appropriate health advice to transplant patients who travel.”
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens. The pathogenicity BIIB057 mouse of P. aeruginosa has been associated with multiple bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between P. aeruginosa strains obtained from various clinical samples and resistance to antibiotics and pathogenicity factors, such as resistance to serum bactericidal activity and biofilm formation. This study included 121 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from

clinical samples; 65 of the isolated P. aeruginosa strains were carbapenem-resistant, and 56 were carbapenem-sensitive. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were more often resistant to the majority of tested antibiotics, compared to carbapenem-sensitive strains. We did not find any statistically significant difference between resistance to carbapenems and serum resistance

and ability of tested P. aeruginosa strains to produce biofilms. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were recovered from the urinary tract significantly more often (75.0%) than carbapenem-sensitive P. aeruginosa learn more strains (25.0%). Carbapenem-sensitive P. aeruginosa strains were recovered significantly more often from the respiratory tract than carbapenem-resistant strains, 60.0% and 40.0%, respectively. All the P. aeruginosa strains recovered from blood were serum-resistant. P. aeruginosa strains recovered from the respiratory tract and wounds were significantly frequently serum sensitive, 95.6% and 56.6%, respectively. We did not find any differences in biofilm production among the P. aeruginosa strains recovered from different sources.”

To present a case of inadvertent intradiscal flow during a L4/5 transforaminal epidural steroid injection.


Case report.


Outpatient private practice.


Single case.


Lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection.


Flow of contrast indicating needle entry into extruded disc material with filling of the L4/5 disc.

This assay could also be used to characterize rapidly the role an

This assay could also be used to characterize rapidly the role and function of any novel Arabidopsis circadian mutant.”
“Twenty Baylis-Hillman adducts were synthesized from different aromatic aldehydes and activated vinyl derivatives. The adducts, which

are differently substituted 3-hydroxy-2-methylene-3-phenylpropionic acid derivatives, were screened for their antimicrobial activity in vitro by the serial dilution method. Many of these molecules displayed potent antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ease of synthesis from low-cost starting materials along with potent antimicrobial activity of these molecules provide the lead for further improvement of Selleckchem CT99021 activity and reflect the possibility of therapeutic use.”
“Objectives: Standard therapies against inflammatory rheumatic diseases consist of immunosuppressive drugs with high toxicities and many side-effects. Except in the treatment of systemic lupus

erythematosus with renal involvement, controlled studies with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are lacking in other autoimmune and inflammatory systemic diseases. Here we describe our clinical experience with MMF in several unusual indications.

Methods: We collected data including serological findings, adverse events and response to treatment in eleven patients with autoimmune diseases including systemic JQ-EZ-05 mw lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), polymyositis SYN-117 concentration (PM), diffuse systemic sclerosis that were treated in our rheumatology unit.

Results: Our results show remission in ten patients with minimal side effects and reduced prednisone dosage. The median dose

of MMF was 2 g per day. Adverse events were limited, with one case of leucopenia, one tachycardia and one colitis. One patient definitively stopped the treatment because of side effects.

Conclusions: MMF seems to be a very powerful and attractive alternative medication in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The good tolerance and safety profile makes it an excellent therapeutic option permiting a global reduction of corticosteroids doses.”
“P>Extracellular ATP regulates higher plant growth and adaptation. The signalling events may be unique to higher plants, as they lack animal purinoceptor homologues. Although it is known that plant cytosolic free Ca2+ can be elevated by extracellular ATP, the mechanism is unknown. Here, we have studied roots of Arabidopsis thaliana to determine the events that lead to the transcriptional stress response evoked by extracellular ATP. Root cell protoplasts were used to demonstrate that signalling to elevate cytosolic free Ca2+ is determined by ATP perception at the plasma membrane, and not at the cell wall.

Karger AG, Basel”
“As a minimally invasive surgery to treat

Karger AG, Basel”
“As a minimally invasive surgery to treat atrial fibrillation (AF), catheter based ablation uses high radio-frequency energy to eliminate potential sources of abnormal electrical events, especially around the ostia of pulmonary veins (PV). Fusing a patient- specific left atrium (LA) model (including LA chamber, appendage, and PVs) with electro-anatomical maps or overlaying the model onto 2-D real-time fluoroscopic images provides valuable visual guidance during the intervention. In this work,

we present a fully automatic LA segmentation system on nongated C-arm computed tomography (C-arm CT) data, where thin boundaries between the LA and surrounding tissues are often blurred due to the cardiac motion artifacts. To avoid segmentation leakage, the shape prior should be exploited to guide the segmentation. A single holistic 4-Hydroxytamoxifen price shape model is often not accurate enough to represent the whole LA shape population PFTα supplier under anatomical variations, e. g., the left common PVs vs. separate left PVs. Instead, a part based LA model is proposed, which includes the chamber, appendage, four major PVs, and right middle PVs. Each part is a much simpler anatomical structure compared to the holistic one and can be segmented using a model-based approach (except the right middle PVs). After segmenting the LA parts, the gaps and overlaps among the parts are resolved and

segmentation of the ostia region is further refined. As a common anatomical variation, some patients may contain extra buy PF-04929113 right middle PVs, which are segmented using a graph cuts algorithm under the constraints from the already extracted major right PVs. Our approach is computationally efficient, taking about 2.6 s to process a volume with 256 x 256 x 245 voxels. Experiments on 687 C-arm CT datasets demonstrate its robustness and state-of-the-art segmentation accuracy.”
“Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology,

endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed.

The likelihood of maintaining a PNALT <= 30 IU/L was 42 2% and

The likelihood of maintaining a PNALT <= 30 IU/L was 42.2% and PNALT <= 40 IU/L 41.7% at 3 years. The Ishak fibrosis score was 3 in 3.7%, 8.3% and 29.6% of patients with PNALT <= 30 IU/L, PNALT <= 40 IU/L and elevated ALT, respectively. Fibrosis progression between paired biopsies was similar for patients with PNALT <= 30

IU/L (0.33 +/- 0.94 Ishak fibrosis points/year), PNALT <= 40 IU/L (0.35 +/- 0.82) and elevated ALT (0.19 find more +/- 0.48). The majority of those defined as PNALT subsequently have an abnormal ALT. They have a similar risk of disease progression to other HCV infected patients and, therefore, warrant the same consideration with regard to treatment.”
“The Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI; range 0-10) has

gained widespread use in daily clinical practice as an objective measure of spinal stiffness not only in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but also in patients with other spondylarthropathies (SpA). We examined intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of BASMI scoring in 30 Danish patients with SpA Salubrinal mouse (median age 40 years, range 22-56 years) fulfilling the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group criteria, 25 of them satisfying the modified New York Criteria for AS. Measurements were performed twice on two different days (median interval 7 days, range 4-11) by a trained physiotherapist (PT) and by an untrained nurse who had undergone a single 1-h training session with the PT. The median BASMI score obtained by the PT on the two test days was 3.5 (range 1-8) and 3.0 (range 1-8), respectively (NS). Test-retest BASMI scores from the PT were significantly correlated (r(S)=0.95, p<0.0001). The 95% likely range for the difference between a patient’s BASMI scores from two tests was +/-

1.4 corresponding to a minimal detectable difference of +/- 2 in the individual patient as the scale consists of intervals of 1. Similar results were achieved by the nurse. BASMI scores obtained by the two raters were significantly intercorrelated (r(S)=0.95, p<0.0001). this website The mean difference between paired BASMI scores obtained by the nurse and the PT on test day 1 was -0.2 with a minimal detectable difference of +/- 2. A similar result was found using data from test day 2. In conclusion, a change in BASMI less than 2 may be due solely to expected random measurement error. A single 1-h training session allowed an untrained nurse to obtain BASMI results almost identical to those of an experienced PT.”
“Background: Acetabular revision of a total hip arthroplasty using jumbo components (Mayo definition, 62 mm in women and 66 mm in men) offers distinct advantages in patients with notable acetabular bone loss. However, there are little data on the long-term survival and complications associated with use of these components.

Methods: This retrospective study of prospectively collected data included 120 patients who underwent 129 revision total hip arthroplasties with jumbo cups.

Among proteins that undergo proteasomal degradation are those inv

Among proteins that undergo proteasomal degradation are those involved in signal transduction, metabolism regulation, cell cycle control and apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system check details causes inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, especially in cancer cells, which makes it a promising strategy of cancer therapy that is already supported by clinical trials. This article summarizes reports of known proteasome inhibitors, differing in chemical structure and mechanism of action, emphasizing their effects on

intracellular phenomena related to apoptosis and cell cycle control.”
“Maspin (SERPINB5) is a member of the Clade B subgroup of the large superfamily of serine protease inhibitors. It is proposed that maspin is

a tumor suppressor; however, its molecular role remains to be elucidated. Here we report the characterization of a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against human maspin. This antibody, 16F7, recognizes maspin in both its native and denatured form, unlike several other commercial Selumetinib supplier antibodies tested in this study. It will be a useful and versatile tool for future analyses of the biological function of maspin.”
“Objectives: The Endurant Stent Graft System (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, CA) is specifically designed to treat patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, including those with difficult anatomies. This is the 1-year report of a prospective, non-randomised, open-label

trial at 10 European centres.

Methods: Between November 2007 and August 2008, 80 patients were enrolled for elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the Endurant; 71 with moderate (<= 60 degrees) and nine with high (60-75 degrees) infrarenal aortic neck angulation. Safety and stent-graft performance were assessed throughout a 1-year follow-up period.

Results: The device was successfully delivered and deployed in all cases. All-cause mortality was 5% (4/80), with one possibly device-related death. Serious adverse events were comparable between the high and moderate angulation groups. There were no device migrations, stent BTK activity inhibition fractures, aortic ruptures or conversions to open repair. Maximal aneurysm diameter decreased >5 mm in 42.7% of cases. A total of 28 endoleaks were observed (26 type II, two undetermined). Three secondary endovascular procedures were performed for outflow vessel stenosis, graft limb occlusion and iliac extension, resulting in a secondary patency rate of 100%. No re-interventions were required in the high angulation group.

Conclusions: The Endurant Stent Graft was successfully delivered and deployed in all cases and performed safely and effectively in all patients, including those with unfavourable proximal neck anatomy. (C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The off-pump coronary artery bypass patients had greater chest tu

The off-pump coronary artery bypass patients had greater chest tube drainage (874.3 +/- 371.5 vs 629.1 +/- 334.5 ml; P = 0.005). The mean priming volume was 1240 +/- 215 ml in the Physio group. Much more Physio patients received red blood cell transfusions (14 vs 25 patient; P = 0.009), because of higher intraoperative transfusion rates (6 vs 15 patients; P = 0.016). Despite similar preoperative haemoglobin levels (13 +/- 1.2 vs 12.6 +/- 1.4 g/dl; P = 0.2), postoperative haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the Physio group.

The Physio cardiopulmonary bypass approach does not significantly alter haemostasis during the operation compared

with off-pump coronary artery bypass providing a reduced activation in the postoperative period reducing also chest tube drainage. However, further priming volume reduction is required to decrease intraoperative red blood cell transfusion.”
“Morphological changes AZD9291 concentration of Leptospira induced by ampicillin, streptomycin, or ciprofloxacin were studied by transmission electron microscopy after staining with uranyl acetate. Irregularities in coiling, loss of hooks, spherical swellings, membrane vesicle formation, disruption of outer membrane, exposure

and detachment of flagella, penetration of dye, and lysis of cells were observed. These changes appeared in a time-dependent manner and appeared to be associated with the sites of action of antimicrobial agents. This is Belnacasan clinical trial the first report delineating the action of aminoglycoside

and new quinolone on the morphology of Leptospira cells.”
“The bone-regenerative potentials of the periosteum have been explored as early as the 17th century. Pim inhibitor Over the past few years, however, much has been discovered in terms of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the periosteal contribution to bone regeneration. Lineage tracing analyses and knock-in transgenic mice have helped define the relative contributions of the periosteum and endosteum to bone regeneration. Additional studies have shed light on the critical roles that BMP, FGF, Hedgehog, Notch, PDGF, Wnt, and inflammation signaling have or may have in periosteal-mediated bone regeneration, fostering the path to novel approaches in bone-regenerative therapy. Thus, by examining the role that each pathway has in periosteal-mediated bone regeneration, in this review we analyze the status of the current research on the regenerative potential of the periosteum. The provided analysis aims to inform both clinician-scientists who may have interest in the current studies about the biology of the periosteum as well as dental surgeons who may find this review useful to perform periosteal-harnessing bone-regenerative procedures.”
“Purpose To describe anterior segment fluorescein angiography (ASFA) of the normal canine eye using two different sedation/anesthetic protocols and a digital single lens-reflex (dSLR) camera adaptor. Methods Dogs free of ocular and systemic disease were used for this study.

The main effect

of x-ray exposure, revealed by the three

The main effect

of x-ray exposure, revealed by the three different approaches, is an increase in the thickness of the gallium and arsenic oxides until a saturation value (about 3.0 nm) is reached after about 50 h. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis performed on a couple of twin samples, either irradiated and nonirradiated, confirms that the oxidation process is promoted by x-ray exposure and indicates the presence of a richer As oxide phase at the surface of the x-ray irradiated PD0332991 datasheet samples. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3054336]“
“Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention

deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype.

Materials and methods: The sample included 6-18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls) Natural Product Library purchase diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment.

Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4%) followed by anxiety disorders (49%) and elimination disorders (27.8%). Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders AZD0530 order were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents.

Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used

to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one comorbid diagnosis. Therefore, especially in the clinical sample, ADHD cases should not be solely interpreted with ADHD symptom domains, instead they should be investigated properly in terms of accompanying psychiatric disorders.”
“We previously reported [Colvin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 101, 084906 (2007)] on the microstructure morphology of pure Bi metal subjected to rapid laser-shock-driven melting and subsequent resolidification upon release of pressure, where the estimated effective undercooling rates were of the order of 10(9)-10(10) K/s. More recently, we repeated these experiments, but with a Bi/Zn alloy (Zn atomic fraction of 2%-4%) instead of elemental Bi and with a change in target design to suppress spall in the Bi/Zn samples. We observed a similar microstructure morphology in the two sets of experiments, with initially columnar grains recrystallizing to larger equiaxed grains.

“A 7-day-old male with tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresi

“A 7-day-old male with tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, and D-transposition of the great vessels underwent surgical placement of a modified Blalock-Taussig (mBT) shunt and was found to have a pseudoaneurysm on the follow-up echocardiogram. Surgical exploration Cell Cycle inhibitor identified

a pseudoaneurysm arising from the right subclavian artery and not from the innominate artery at the site of the mBT shunt. It was concluded that this was caused by an inadvertent needlestick during central line placement. The fistula tract between the right subclavian artery and the false aneurysm was oversewn, and the postoperative course was unremarkable.”
“In this study, shrimp shell powder, prepared by treating shrimp-processing waste by boiling and crushing, was used as a substrate for isolation of chitinase-producing microorganism. These

organisms may have an important economic role in the biological control of rice and other fungal pathogens. Two hundred strains of bacteria with the ability to degrade chitin from shrimp shell waste were isolated from paddy soil, and of these, 40 strains showed chitinase activity in a solid state cultivation. One MDV3100 mouse of the most potent isolates (strain R 176) was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification was carried out using morphological and biochemical properties along with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. This strain was able to produce high levels of extracellular chitinase in solid media containing shrimp shells as sole carbon source [1.36 U/g initial dry substrate (IDS)], which was LY2835219 purchase 0.36-fold higher than the productivity in a

liquid culture with colloidal chitin. The effects of medium composition and physical parameters on chitinase production by this organism were studied. The optimal medium contained shrimp shell mixed with rice straw in 1:1 ratio added with ball-milled chitin 0.5 % (w/v) and ammonium sulfate 0.5 % (w/v). The highest enzyme production (3.86 U/g IDS) by B. thuringiensis R 176 was obtained at pH 7, 37 A degrees C after 14 days growth. With respect to the high amount of chitinase production by this strain in a simple medium, this strain could be a suitable candidate for the production of chitinase from chitinous solid substrates, and further investigations into its structure and characteristics are merited.”
“Background: Inadequate antifactor Xa levels have been documented in critically ill patients given prophylactic enoxaparin and may result in increased risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of dose adjustment of enoxaparin and associated incidence of VTE in acute burn patients.

Methods: All acute burn patients who were treated with prophylactic enoxaparin on a burn/trauma intensive care unit were prospectively followed.

No clear risk factors were identified for VRE colonization in the

No clear risk factors were identified for VRE colonization in the current study, but there was a trend towards an increased prevalence in children admitted to the intensive

care unit since their ALL diagnosis (p = 0.07). The VanA genotype was found in 28 of the 33 stools (85%), with all other enterococci being VanB.

Conclusions: The prevalence of VRE colonization in children with ALL in Tehran is high. Modifiable risk factors have not been identified. The implementation of routine surveillance for colonization and an increased emphasis on adherence to standard infection control precautions may prevent spread. U0126 cost (C) 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This article describes

the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp CHIR98014 price increase of coating efficiency value.”
“QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To compare efficacy and safety of the dopamine agonist pramipexole (PPX) versus reference treatment with dual release

levodopa/benserazide (L/B) in de novo patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS).

METHODS: A total of 39 men and women between 25 and 85 years old, fulfilling all clinical criteria for diagnosis of idiopathic RLS, previously untreated, participated. The study was performed as a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy crossover trial with two treatment periods of four weeks and took place in six Swiss certified sleep-centres. Interventions were PPX 0.25-0.75 mg and dual-release L/B 125-375 mg. The primary outcome measure was the frequency of periodic limb movements while in bed (PLM index, PLMI). Secondary endpoints included the changes in patient ratings on the International RLS Study Group Rating Scale (IRLS).

RESULTS: Both pramipexole and dual-release L/B were effective in reducing PLM and RLS symptoms. Mean PLMI reduction was -11.5 for PPX and -7.7 for L/B (baseline 21.1 and 21.5), and the mean IRLS score reduction was -7.2 and -4.0 (baseline 20.8 and 21.1). In patients with an IRLS score > 20 (38%), a significantly (p = 0.047) higher PLMI reduction for PPX (-8.