In contrast, most of the C. coli isolates (62%) were grouped into only three fla-PFGE types, suggesting less diversity among C. coli. Bae et click here al.  demonstrated that PFGE types of antimicrobial-resistant C. coli from cattle were less diverse than those of C. jejuni, and Nayak et al.  reported a similar effect
among antimicrobial-resistant C. coli and C. jejuni from turkey farms. Wesley et al.  described the opposite case, that C. coli from turkeys were more diverse than C. jejuni based on PFGE, although antimicrobial resistance was not determined. The Campylobacter isolates examined in this study originated from turkey carcasses at either the pre or post chill stages of processing. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin or erythromycin resistance was similar from either stage in plant A. In contrast, Berrang et al. found that the numbers of erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni on broiler carcasses were reduced after chilling, and suggested selleck chemical further study to determine whether this resistance influences the ability of Campylobacter to endure immersion chilling . In the current study, several of the same fla-PFGE types were recovered from both stages, indicating that some ciprofloxacin- and/or
erythromycin-resistant strains were present beyond chilling. Information about antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on post-chill turkey product is limited and further study is needed. Most of the fla-PFGE types (36 of 37) in the current study were unique to a particular plant. Similarly, Rasschaert et al.  demonstrated that most fla-PFGE types obtained from broilers at three processing plants were unique within a particular plant. The two Fosbretabulin solubility dmso plants participating in the current study were located approximately 150 miles apart in different states and were not likely to receive turkeys from the same farms. Isolation of the same fla-PFGE type (M10) from both plants may suggest a common source of this type, and warrants further investigation. However, it must be noted that the isolates subtyped for this study comprised a small portion of the entire Campylobacter collection (n = 801) tested, which may
influence the frequency of fla-PFGE types obtained and is a limitation of our study. Clustering using PFGE alone or fla-PFGE in conjunction with resistance profiles separated C. jejuni and C. coli into different groups. The diversity Bacterial neuraminidase of genetic profiles, in conjunction with differences in resistance profiles by species, further supports the importance of considering C. jejuni and C. coli separately in epidemiological investigations [7, 30, 47, 48]. Although C. jejuni is implicated in most campylobacteriosis cases, human illness attributed to C. coli is also recognized [13, 47, 49, 50]. C. coli is often associated with pigs; but was prevalent in turkeys in our previous study  and those of others [7, 51]. In Denmark, poultry, but not pigs, were associated with human C. coli infections .