The evidence base for the use of resveratrol in the management of

The evidence base for the use of resveratrol in the management of ocular diseases needs to be increased before recommendations can be made for the use of resveratrol as an ocular supplement.”
“A series of new analogs of Natural Product Library price combretastatin A-4 (CA-4, 1) with

the A or B-ring replaced by a 3-oxo-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin or a furocoumarin residue have been designed and synthesized by employing a cross-coupling approach. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity with respect to model cancer cell lines (CEM-13, MT-4, U-937) using conventional MTT assays. Structure-activity relationship analysis reveals that compounds 2, 3, 6-8 in which the (Z)-styryl substituent was connected to the 2-position of the 3-oxo-2,3-dihydrofurocoumarin core, demonstrated increased potency compared to 3-(Z)-styrylfurocoumarins 4, 5, 9-11. The methoxy-, hydroxyl-and formyl-substitution on the aromatic ring of the (Z)-styryl moiety seems to play an important role in this class of compounds. Compounds 2 and 3 showed the best potency against the CEM-13 cell lines, with CTD50 values ranging from 4.9 to 5.1 mu M. In comparison with CA-4, all synthesized compounds presented moderate cytotoxic activity to the T-cellular human leucosis cells MT-4 and lymphoblastoid leukemia cells CEM-13, but most of them were active in the human monocyte cell lines U-937.”
“The utilization of pedicle

screw fixation as an adjunct to posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) has become routine, but demonstration

of selleck compound library a definitive benefit remains problematic. The Belnacasan medical evidence indicates that the addition of pedicle screw fixation to PLF increases fusion rates when assessed with dynamic radiographs. More recent evidence, since publication of the 2005 Lumbar Fusion Guidelines, suggests a stronger association between radiographic fusion and clinical outcome, although, even now, no clear correlation has been demonstrated. Although several reports suggest that clinical outcomes are improved with the addition of pedicle screw fixation, there are conflicting findings from similarly classified evidence. Furthermore, the largest contemporary, randomized, controlled study on this topic failed to demonstrate a significant clinical benefit with the use of pedicle screw fixation in patients undergoing PLF for chronic low-back pain. This absence of proof should not, however, be interpreted as proof of absence. Several limitations continue to compromise these investigations. For example, in the majority of studies the sample size is insufficient to detect small increments in clinical outcome that may be observed with pedicle screw fixation. Therefore, no definitive statement regarding the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation as a means to improve functional outcomes in patients undergoing PLF for chronic low-back pain can be made.

It is important in clinical practice to distinguish between the t

It is important in clinical practice to distinguish between the two groups since they require different therapeutic approaches.”
“As computers and smartphones continue to transform the doctor-patient relationship, it is essential that healthcare professionals understand how their patients wish to interact with these devices. The

results from a satisfaction questionnaire of 225 Oncology patients treated in 2011 in Quebec, Canada provide insight into the manner in which patients have been and wish to communicate selleck compound with their healthcare teams. The survey also addressed whether or not patients searched the Internet for supplementary information regarding their condition. Generally,

patients were neutral regarding adopting greater usage of modern means of communication. The majority of patients did not want to be contacted via e-mail or SMS, nor did the patients want to make appointments or fill out surveys online. Forty four percent of patients used the Internet to learn more about their condition. Concerning the patients who were not provided with links to medically relevant websites, 44% wished their doctors had supplied them with such links. Though there was much overlap between the 44% of patients who went on the Internet to learn more about their condition and the 44% of the patients who wished their physicians provided them with selleck chemical such links, 14% of all the patients wished

this website their medical teams had provided them with links, but did not independently search for medically relevant information about their condition. Using chi-square testing education level was found to be the best predictor of which patients searched the web for supplementary information about their conditions (p = 0.003). Contrary to findings in other studies, a comparable proportion of patients in each age-group used the Internet to research their condition. Given the wealth of web-resources available to cancer patients, it would be beneficial for both healthcare teams and their patients if physicians consistently offered a list of trustworthy websites to their patients.”
“Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a major complication for patients with end-stage renal disease on long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. When the disease is resistant to medical treatment, patients with severe sHPT are typically referred for parathyroidectomy (PTx), which usually improves biological parameters as well as clinical signs and symptoms. Unfortunately, early surgical failure with persistent disease may occur in 5%-10% of patients and recurrence reaches 20%-30% at 5 years. Presently, the use of parathyroid scintigraphy in sHPT is usually limited to the management of surgical failures after initial PTx.

Results: The CAB sequence compared to ABC

prompts qui

\n\nResults: The CAB sequence compared to ABC

prompts quicker recognition of respiratory (CAB vs. ABC = 17.48 +/- 2.19 vs. 19.17 +/- 2.38 s; p < 0.05) or cardiac arrest (CAB vs. ABC = 17.48 +/- 2.19 vs. 41.67 +/- 4.95; p < 0.05) and faster start buy GS-9973 of ventilatory maneuvers (CAB vs. ABC = 19.13 +/- 1.47 s vs. 22.66 +/- 3.07; p < 0.05) or chest compressions (CAB vs. ABC = 19.27 +/- 2.64 vs. 43.40 +/- 5.036; p < 0.05).\n\nConclusions: Compared to ABC the CAB sequence prompts shorter time of intervention both in diagnosing respiratory or cardiac arrest and in starting ventilation or chest compression. However, this does not necessarily entail prompter resumption of spontaneous circulation and significant reduction of neurological sequelae, PI3K inhibitor an issue that requires further studies. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: The development of multispecies

biofilm models are needed to explain the interactions that take place in root canal biofilnns during apical periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of 4 root canal bacteria to establish a multispecies biofilm community and to characterize the main structural, compositional, and physiological features of this community. Methods: Four clinical isolates isolated from infected root canals, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus saliva rius, Streptococcus gordonii, and Enterococcus faecalis, were grown together in a miniflow cell system. Simultaneous detection of the 4 species in the biofilm communities was achieved by fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with confocal microscopy at different time points. The LIVE/ DEAD Bac Light technique (Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA) was used to assess cell viability and to calculate 3dimensional architectural parameters such as biovolume (mu m(3)). Redox fluorescence dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditoly1 tetrazolium chloride was used to assess the metabolic activity of biofilm bacteria. Results: The 4 species tested were able to form stable and reproducible biofilm communities. The biofilms formed in rich medium generally showed continuous

growth over time, however, in the absence of glucose biofilms showed significantly smaller biovolumes. A high proportion of viable cells (>90%) were generally observed, and biofilm growth was correlated with high metabolic activity of cells. The community structure of biofilms formed in rich medium did not change considerably over the 120-hour period, during which E. faecalis, L. salivarius, and S. gordonii were most abundant. Conclusions: The ability of 4 root canal bacteria to form multispecies biofilm communities shown in this study give insights into assessing the community lifestyle of these microorganisms in vivo. This multispecies model could be useful for further research simulating stresses representative of in vivo conditions.

0001) and nodal metastasis (P = 0 021) c-Met protein was detecte

0001) and nodal metastasis (P = 0.021). c-Met protein was detected in all tumors by immunohistochemistry as membranous and cytoplasmic staining. Phospho-c-Met

(pc-Met) was positive in 119/125 tumors (95%) and expressed at high levels in 27 cases (22%). A high level of pc-Met expression was significantly associated with MPP (P = 0.01) and MK-2206 supplier SCI (P = 0.0059). Moreover, in tumors with MPP or SCI, those expressing high levels of pc-Met were significantly more associated with lymphatic involvement. In p-Stage IA lung adenocarcinomas (n = 99), patients in the high pc-Met expression group showed significantly worse survival than patient in the low expression group (P = 0.0313). These results suggest that activation of c-Met through phosphorylation may be involved in MPP and SCI. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Methods. Ayurvedic formulations (extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Zingiber officinale, Emblica officinalis, Boswellia serrata), glucosamine sulphate (2 g daily) and celecoxib (200 mg daily) were evaluated in a randomized, selleck chemicals llc double-blind, parallel-efficacy, four-arm, multicentre equivalence drug trial

of 24 weeks duration. A total of 440 eligible patients suffering from symptomatic knee OA were enrolled and monitored as per protocol. Primary efficacy variables were active body weight-bearing pain (visual analogue scale) and modified WOMAC pain and functional difficulty Likert score (for knee and hip); the corresponding a priori equivalence ranges were +/- 1.5 cm, +/- 2.5 and +/- 8.5.\n\nResults.

Differences between the intervention arms for mean changes in primary efficacy variables were within the equivalence range by intent-to-treat and per protocol analysis. Twenty-six patients showed asymptomatic increased serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) with otherwise normal liver function; seven patients (Ayurvedic intervention) were withdrawn and SGPT normalized after stopping the drug. Other adverse events were mild and did not differ by intervention. Overall, 28% of patients withdrew from the study.\n\nConclusion. In this 6-month controlled study of knee OA, Ayurvedic ASP2215 formulations (especially SGCG) significantly reduced knee pain and improved knee function and were equivalent to glucosamine and celecoxib. The unexpected SGPT rise requires further safety assessment.\n\nTrial registration: Clinical Drug Trial Registry – India, ext-link-type=”uri” xlink:href=”,” xmlns:xlink=””>, CTRI/2008/091/000063.”
“The ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field (LHF) is characterized by vent fluids, which are enriched in dissolved hydrogen and methane compared with fluids from basalt-hosted systems. Thick sediment layers in LHF are partly covered by characteristic white mats. In this study, these sediments were investigated in order to determine biogeochemical processes and key organisms relevant for primary production.

Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2

Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different

C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression SBE-β-CD concentration analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) TPCA-1 inhibitor and ethephon.”
“Massive air pollutants originating in China and their trans-boundary transports are an international concern in East Asia. Despite its importance, details in the trans-boundary transport of air pollutants over East Asia and its impact on regional air quality remain to be clarified. This study presents an evidence which strong

support that aerosols emitting in China play a major role in the occurrence of multi-day ( bigger than = 4 days) severe air pollution episodes in cold seasons (October through March) for 2001-2013 in Seoul, Korea, where the concentration of PM10 (particulates with diameters smaller than = 10 gm) exceeds 100 mu g m(-3). Observations show that these multi-day severe air pollution episodes occur when a strong high-pressure system resides over the eastern China Korea region. In such weather conditions, air pollutants emitted in eastern China/southwestern Manchuria are trapped within the atmospheric boundary layer, and gradually spread into neighboring countries by weak lower tropospheric westerlies. Understanding of trans-boundary transports of air pollutants will advance the predictability

of local air quality, and will encourage the development of international measures to improve air quality. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights DZNeP reserved.”
“To optimize a radial turbo spin-echo sequence for motion-robust morphological lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in free respiration. A versatile multi-shot radial turbo spin-echo (rTSE) sequence is presented, using a modified golden ratio-based reordering designed to prevent coherent streaking due to data inconsistencies from physiological motion and the decaying signal. The point spread function for a moving object was simulated using a model for joint respiratory and cardiac motion with a concomitant T-2 signal decay and with rTSE acquisition using four different reordering techniques. The reordering strategies were compared in vivo using healthy volunteers and the sequence was tested for feasibility in two patients with lung cancer and pneumonia.

It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach “<

It also examines the reasons for this legal change of approach.”
“Although GDC-0068 datasheet it has been hypothesized that an atherogenic lipid profile might be associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), the previous results are controversial. We investigated the association between lipid profile and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in a large Korean population. This study considered 10,402 women who underwent measurements of lipid profile and BMD from October 2003 to October 2005 at Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital. Participants with potential confounding factors affecting BMD (n = 3,128) were excluded. The associations between

lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein [LDL-C] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C] cholesterol, and triglyceride [TG]) and BMD at various skeletal sites (lumbar spine [L1-L4], proximal total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter) were explored by Pearson’s correlation and partial correlation,

adjusting for age, body mass index, and menarche age. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for all other covariates were also performed. Data on 4,613 premenopausal and 2,661 postmenopausal women aged 20-91 years were finally included in the analysis. In multivariate analyses, there was no significant relationship between AG-014699 purchase lipid profiles and BMD, except that HDL-C was positively associated with BMD at only the lumbar learn more spine in postmenopausal women and that the quartiles of TG were negatively associated with BMD at the total hip and trochanter in only premenopausal women. We conclude that although there were some weak associations between lipid profiles and BMD, the results of this study hardly support the hypothesis that an atherogenic lipid profile is associated with osteoporosis.”
“Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate extrinsic and intrinsic

muscles of the tongue and control behaviors such as suckling, swallowing, breathing or chewing. In young rats, XII motoneurons express V1a vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Previous studies have shown that activation of these receptors induces direct powerful excitation in XII motoneurons. In addition, by activating V1a receptors vasopressin can also enhance inhibitory synaptic transmission in the XII nucleus. In the present work, we have further characterized the effect of these neuropeptides on synaptic transmission in the XII nucleus. We have used brainstem slices of young rats and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Oxytocin enhanced the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents by a factor of two and a half. GABAergic and glycinergic events were both affected. The oxytocin effect was mediated by uterine-type oxytocin receptors.

fragilis virulence in vivo “
“Objectives: CHADS(2) score pre

fragilis virulence in vivo.”
“Objectives: CHADS(2) score predicts embolic risk in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), but also bleeding risk in patients receiving oral anticoagulation (OAC). Our objective is to analyze the effectiveness SN-38 cost and safety of OAC in patients with NVAF in daily clinical practice, according to embolic risk evaluated by means of CHADS(2) score. Methods: All consecutive outpatients with permanent NVAF seen at 2 cardiology clinics were prospectively followed for embolic events (transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, peripheral embolism) and severe bleedings. OAC was prescribed according to

the recommendations of scientific associations. CHADS(2) score was obtained for each patient. Results: From February 1, 2000 to July 31,

2003, 796 outpatients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. OAC was prescribed to 564 (71%) patients. After 2.4 +/- 1.9 years of follow-up, the embolic event rates (per 100 patient-years) for each stratum of the CHADS(2) score for patients with/without OAC were: 1/4.1, p = 0.23 (CHADS(2) = 0); 0.6/7.1, p = 0.0018 (CHADS(2) = 1); 0.5/5.1, p = 0.0014 (CHADS(2) = 2); 2.4/12.5, p = 0.0017 (CHADS(2) = 3) and 2.9/20, p = 0.013 (CHADS(2) >= 4). The severe bleeding rates for the same CHADS(2) score strata were 3/0.8, 0.8/0.7, 1.3/0.7, 0.4/0, and 2.9/5 in patients with/without CYT387 cell line OAC (n.s.). Conclusion: Ro-3306 Cell Cycle inhibitor OAC is effective and safe in daily clinical practice in patients with NVAF and CHADS(2) score >= 1. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“This study investigated the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in failure of ethanol-induced fatty liver grafts. Rat livers were explanted 20 h after gavaging with ethanol (5 g/kg) and storing in UW solution for 24 h before implantation.

Hepatic oil red O staining-positive areas increased from similar to 2 to similar to 33% after ethanol treatment, indicating steatosis. iNOS expression increased similar to 8-fold after transplantation of lean grafts (LG) and 25-fold in fatty grafts (FG). Alanine aminotransferase release, total bilirubin, hepatic necrosis, TUNEL-positive cells, and cleaved caspase-3 were higher in FG than LG. A specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W (5 mu M in the cold-storage solution) blunted these alterations by > 42% and increased survival of fatty grafts from 25 to 88%. Serum nitrite/nitrate and hepatic nitrotyrosine adducts increased to a greater extent after transplantation of FG than LG, indicating reactive nitrogen species (RNS) overproduction. Phospho-c-Jun and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1/2 (JNK1/2) were higher in FG than in LG, indicating more JNK activation in fatty grafts. RNS formation and JNK activation were blunted by 1400W. Mitochondrial polarization and cell death were visualized by intravital multiphoton microscopy of rhodamine 123 and propidium iodide, respectively.

Blood transfusions were noted and the incidence of symptomatic DV

Blood transfusions were noted and the incidence of symptomatic DVT/PE was determined. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in the TXA and FS + TXA groups compared see more to the control and FS groups on day 1, 4, and 9 post-operatively. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the control group were similar to those in the FS group and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the TXA group were similar to those in the FS + TXA group. TEG parameters (R, K, alpha, MA, and CI) remained within normal ranges. Mean CI was less than + 3 in all four groups,

suggesting that hypercoagulation was not promoted. One patient in the FS group received an allogeneic transfusion. Incidence of symptomatic DVT/PE was not noted. Intravenous TXA significantly reduced perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing a TKA but FS did not. Administration of FS in addition to TXA was not superior to TXA alone. FS and/or TXA did not increase the risk of hypercoagulation Selleckchem Smoothened Agonist according to TEG parameters. Intravenous administration of 1 g of TXA pre-operatively and administration of 1 g before tourniquet release is an effective and safe method of reducing blood loss in TKA.”

energy transfer (RET) from anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine (AV-PC) or cardiolipin (AV-CL) to cytochrome c (cyt c) heme moiety was employed to assess the molecular-level details of protein interactions with lipid bilayers composed of PC with 2.5 (CL2.5), 5 (CL5), 10 (CLIO), or 20 (CL20) mol % CL under conditions of varying ionic strength and lipid/protein molar ratio. Monte Carlo analysis of multiple data sets revealed a subtle interplay between 1), exchange of the neutral and acidic lipid in the protein-lipid interaction zone; 2), CL transition into the extended conformation; and 3), formation of the hexagonal phase. The switch between these states was found

to be controlled by CL content and salt concentration. At ionic strengths >= 40 mM, lipid bilayers with CL fraction not exceeding 5 mol % exhibited the tendency to transform from lamellar to hexagonal phase upon cyt c adsorption, whereas at higher contents of CL, transition into the extended conformation BI-D1870 nmr seems to become thermodynamically favorable. At lower ionic strengths, deviations from homogeneous lipid distributions were observed only for model membranes containing 2.5 mol % CL, suggesting the existence of a certain surface potential critical for assembly of lipid lateral domains in protein-lipid systems that may subsequently undergo morphological transformations depending on ambient conditions. These characteristics of cyt c-CL interaction are of great interest, not only from the viewpoint of regulating cyt c electron transfer and apoptotic propensities, but also to elucidate the general mechanisms by which membrane functional activities can be modulated by protein-lipid interactions.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of queti

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quetiapine on object recognition memory and on oxidative stress that could be involved in the AD pathogenesis in an amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 double transgenic mouse model of AD. Nontransgenic and transgenic mice were treated with quetiapine (0 or 5 mg/kg/day) in drinking water from the age of 2 months. After 10 months of continuous quetiapine administration, object recognition memory impairment

and the increased hippocampal protein expression of nitrotyrosine, a protein marker of oxidative stress, were attenuated in the AD mice. These results suggest that quetiapine can attenuate object recognition memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in an amyloid

precursor protein/presenilin-1 transgenic mouse model of AD and indicate that the antioxidative effect of early Torin 1 quetiapine intervention may be associated with the beneficial effect of quetiapine on memory in AD. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Early mobilization of critically ill patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy that improves patient outcomes, such as the duration of mechanical ventilation and muscle strength. Despite the apparent efficacy of early mobility programs, their use in clinical practice is limited outside of specialized Metabolism inhibitor centers and clinical trials. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying mobility

therapy, we exercised acute lung injury (ALI) selleck products mice for 2 days after the instillation of lipopolysaccharides into their lungs. We found that a short duration of moderate intensity exercise in ALI mice attenuated muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1)-mediated atrophy of the limb and respiratory muscles and improved limb muscle force generation. Exercise also limited the influx of neutrophils into the alveolar space through modulation of a coordinated systemic neutrophil chemokine response. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) concentrations were systemically reduced by exercise in ALI mice, and in vivo blockade of the G-CSF receptor recapitulated the lung exercise phenotype in ALI mice. Additionally, plasma G-CSF concentrations in humans with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoing early mobility therapy showed greater decrements over time compared to control ARF patients. Together, these data provide a mechanism whereby early mobility therapy attenuates muscle wasting and limits ongoing alveolar neutrophilia through modulation of systemic neutrophil chemokines in lung-injured mice and humans.”
“BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Incidental durotomy occurs in 1% to 17% of lumbar spine surgery. This is treated with watertight suture repair, often combined with a sealant.

“Thin films of Ce/Cu mixed oxide with molar ratios of 1 an

“Thin films of Ce/Cu mixed oxide with molar ratios of 1 and 2 were prepared from inorganic precursors using the sol-gel route. Various electrochemical SC79 and spectroscopic techniques were used for characterization of the films and investigation of their optical and electrochemical properties. It was found that the redox behaviour significantly depends on the Ce/Cu ratio and on the concentration of Li(+) ions. Slow kinetics of the charge transfer reactions was evident from cyclic voltammetry measurements of both types of films only at low scan rates ( < 20 mV/s). Measurement of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) indicated that the local structure of Ce and Cu ions is not affected by the Ce/Cu molar

ratio. CD 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To describe a respiratory disease prevention program in a US heavy-construction company. Methods: The program uses periodic spirometry and questionnaires and is integrated into a worksite wellness program involving individualized intervention. Spirometry Longitudinal Data Analysis (SPIROLA) technology is used to assist the physician with (i) management and evaluation of

longitudinal spirometry and questionnaire data; (ii) designing, recoding, and implementing intervention; and (iii) evaluation of impact of the intervention. Preintervention data provide benchmark results. Results: Preintervention check details results on 1224 workers with 5 or more years of follow-up showed that the mean rate of FEV(1) decline was 47 mL/year. Age-stratified prevalence of moderate airflow obstruction was

higher than that for the US population. Conclusion: Preintervention results indicate the need for respiratory disease prevention in this construction workforce and provide a benchmark for future evaluation of the intervention.”
“This paper deals with systematic study of (MMWO6)-M-I-W-II (M-I = Co and M-II = Fe) mixed oxide catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by polymer based citrate sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared selleck inhibitor spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average particle size calculated using TEM studies were found to be in the range 20-40 rim. DC electrical conductivity showed phase transition from extrinsic to intrinsic behaviour. The ammonia and carbon dioxide adsorption over these catalysts surfaces were used as a probe to confirm the acidic and basic sites. The acidic and basic sites ascertained by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies carried out using thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry technique. The presence of acidic and basic sites in equal ratio on the catalyst surface exhibited better CO oxidation activity as compared to unequal number of sites. The equal affinity for CO adsorption over acidic and O-2 on basic sites were found to be essential criteria for catalytic CO oxidation reaction. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.