The lesions were larger in IL-6-deficient strains, and significan

The lesions were larger in IL-6-deficient strains, and significantly so in IL-6(-/-)ApoE(-/-) recipients. Early immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 alloantibody deposits were observed in the grafts of ApoE-deficient strains and late IgG2a deposits in the grafts of IL-6-deficient strains. A rapid and sustained type I helper T cell (Th1; IgG2a) alloresponse in IL-6(-/-) mice, and a strong type 2 helper T cell (Th2; IgG1) response in ApoE(-/-) mice were observed. IL-6(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice displayed the highest alloantibody titer, with a Th1 dominance.


Unexpectedly, Cyclosporin A cell line IL-6 deficiency in the recipient mice did not prevent CVR lesions but even aggravated them in IL-6(-/-)ApoE(-/-) recipients. This was associated with increased local and systemic alloresponses. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:85-92. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”
“Di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the

most widely used plasticizer, was investigated to determine whether an oxidative stress process was one of the underlying mechanisms for its testicular toxicity potential. To evaluate the effects of selenium (Se), status on the toxicity of DEHP was further objective of this study, as Se is known to play a critical role in testis and in the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium. Se deficiency was produced in 3-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats feeding them 0.05 mg Se /kg diet for 5 weeks, and Se-supplementation group was on 1 mg Se/kg diet. DEHP-treated groups received 1000 mg/kg dose by gavage during the last 10 days selleck chemicals llc of the feeding period. Activities of antioxidant selenoenzymes [glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)], catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and thus the GSH/GSSG redox ratio; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were measured. DEHP was found to induce oxidative stress in

rat testis, as evidenced by significant decrease in GSH/GSSG redox ratio (>10-fold) and marked Selleck LB-100 increase in TBARS levels, and its effects were more pronounced in Se-deficient rats with approximate to 18.5-fold decrease in GSH/GSSG redox ratio and a significant decrease in GPx4 activity, whereas Se supplementation was protective by providing substantial elevation of redox ratio and reducing the lipid peroxidation. These findings emphasized the critical role of Se as an effective redox regulator and the importance of Se status in protecting testicular tissue from the oxidant stressor activity of DEHP. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 98-107, 2014.”
“We investigated low temperature formation of a 10 nm thick amorphous Ni-Si layer after room temperature deposition of a 7 nm Ni layer on [001] Si, by in situ transmission electron microscopy analyses.

“In order to comprehensively characterize the effects of C

“In order to comprehensively characterize the effects of Cr (VI) on the photosynthetic performance of Pisum sativum, plants irrigated with Cr solutions (ranging from 20 to 2000 mg l(-1)) were evaluated using the following classical LDC000067 endpoints: gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence, leaf pigments, Rubisco activity, soluble sugars and starch content. Flow cytometry (FCM) was applied in an innovative approach to evaluate the morphological and fluorescence emission status of chloroplasts from plants

exposed to Cr (VI). The parameters related to gas exchange, net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and Rubisco activity were severally affected by Cr exposure, in NCT-501 in vivo some cases even at the lowest

dosage used. While all biomarkers used to measure Chl a fluorescence indicated a decrease in fluorescence at the maximum dosage, pigment contents significantly increased in response to Cr (VI). The morphology of chloroplasts also was altered by Cr (VI) exposure, as a volume decrease was observed. Soluble sugars and starch showed an overall tendency to increase in Cr (VI) exposed plants, but sucrose and glucose decreased highly when exposed to 2000 mg l(-1). In conclusion, our results indicate that Cr (VI) affects photosynthesis at several levels, but the most Cr (VI)-sensitive endpoints were chloroplast morphology and biochemical processes; only at higher dosages the photochemical efficiency is compromised. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Turkish version

of the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) scale in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Sixty nine patients with idiopathic CTS were included. HM781-36B price The Quick DASH questionnaire consists of three subscales including disability/symptom, and work and sports/performing arts. Quick DASH was administered after translation process to subjects twice a week for testing reliability. The validity was based on correlating Quick DASH with the Boston Questionnaire, visual analogue scale-pain (VAS-pain), and pinch and grip strength tests. Reliability of the Turkish version of the Quick DASH scale was very good with high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.84 for disability/symptom subscale, 0.937 for work subscale, and 0.926 for sports/performing arts subscale) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.931 for disability/symptom subscale, 0.925 for work subscale, and 0.779 for sports/performing arts subscale). The disability/symptom subscale had moderate correlations with the VAS-pain and grip strength test and good correlation with the pinch strength test. The work subscales had moderate correlations with VAS-pain, and pinch and pinch grip strength tests.

Current standard chemoradiation strategies have reached the upper

Current standard chemoradiation strategies have reached the upper limits of toxicity. In addition, the traditional one size fits all approach of grouping patients according to traditional clinicopathological features fails to take into account the vast underlying biological heterogeneity of tumors and their host. A number of recent advances such as highly conformal RT, molecular profiling and targeted agents, and improvements in treatment response assessment have set the scene for a fundamental paradigm shift toward greater tailoring

of therapy with the aim of improving outcomes and reducing the burden of survivorship. This review focuses on the recognition of the prognostic value of tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status, the incorporation AZD8055 mouse of biologically targeted therapies and the evolving role of molecular imaging in predicting tumor response and prognosis in the curative management of LAHNSCC.”
“We report a series of 4 patients

who experienced a low-grade mycotic endophthalmitis 3 to 7 months after uneventful cataract surgery. In all patients, the capsular bag was irrigated several times and amphotericin B was instilled intraocularly as well as systemically. In the fourth patient, a pars plans vitrectomy was been performed. Microbiological examination of aqueous humor samples revealed Candida parapsilosis in 3 patients and Candida albicans in 1 patient as causative microorganisms. At follow-up examinations performed up to 12 months after the lavage, visual acuities were 0.2, 0.1, 0.1, and hand motion in the 4 patients, respectively. The main reason for the remaining reduction in visual acuity was retinal and optic nerve atrophy. The findings show that a mycotic etiology of postoperative low-grade infectious endophthalmitis should be considered.”
“Using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition, we fabricated L1(0)-type Fe50Pt50 ordered alloy perpendicular films on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates and 2.5 in. glass disks at low

substrate temperatures of 200-350 degrees C. Then we examined the magnetic properties of the dot arrays made from these films. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K-u for L1(0)-type FePt films (10 nm in thickness) deposited with a Pd underlayer on MgO(001) substrates Sapanisertib ic50 reached about 2 x 10(7) erg/cm(3) at the substrate temperature T-s of 200 degrees C, and 3 x 10(7) erg/cm(3) at T-s = 250 degrees C. The order parameter S was about 0.46 at T-s = 300 degrees C. Moreover, K-u for L1(0)-FePt films fabricated on glass disks using MgO/Cr underlayers shows 3.4 x 10(7) erg/cm(3) at T-s = 300 degrees C, which was almost equal to that for FePt single-crystal films deposited on Pd/MgO(001). The switching field distribution sigma/H-c for dot arrays made from L1(0)-FePt film [5 nm in thickness, on Pd/ MgO(001) at T-s = 250 degrees C] was small; sigma/H-c = 0.11 for a dot diameter of 15 nm. This value was smaller than that of hcp-Co75Pt25 dot arrays (sigma/H-c = 0.18).

Human studies, which focused on neuronal systems that store and c

Human studies, which focused on neuronal systems that store and control drug-conditioned memories, have found cerebellar activations during the retrieval of drug-associated cue memory. However, at the pre-clinical level,

almost no attention has been paid to a possible role of the cerebellum in drug-related memories. In the present study, we ought to fill this gap by aiming to investigate the pattern of neuronal activation (as revealed by cFos expression) in different regions of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of mice trained to develop conditioned preference for an olfactory stimulus (CS+) paired with cocaine. Our results indicate that CS+ preference was directly associated with cFos expression in cells at the apical region of the granule cell layer of the cerebellar vermis; this relationship being more prominent in some specific lobules. Conversely, cFos+ immunostaining in other cerebellar regions seems to be unrelated to CS+ preference but Belnacasan concentration to other aspects of the conditioning procedure. At the prefrontal cortex, cFos expression seemed to be related to cocaine administration rather than to its ability to establish conditioned preference. The present results suggest that as it has been observed in some clinical studies, the cerebellum

might be an important and largely overlooked part of the neural circuits involved in generating, maintaining and/or retrieving drug memories.”
“Objective: The study aimed to test the potential role BI-D1870 of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and IGF-II as biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

Methods and results: IGF-I and II levels were analysed in 115 patients with screening diagnosed AAA kept under annual surveillance for 10 years.

Serum IGF-I correlated positively with AAA size and growth rate (r = 0.23, P = 0.016 and r = 0.27, P = 0.004), persisting after adjustment for potential confounders.

Serum IGF-I level predicted cases needing later surgery (AOC: 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.73).

Conclusions: In this prospective, long-term study, baseline serum IGF-I correlated positively with AAA size and growth rate and predicted future need for preventive surgery.

(C) 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO) FRAX597 mouse due to mitotic diseases is a serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the follow-up data and demographics of patients with SVCO admitted to the Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, over a 14-year period.

The prospectively entered clinical data of patients with SVCO in Queen Mary Hospital from October 1997 to September 2011 were retrospectively analysed. All patient records were electronically and manually searched. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves analysis. The Mantel-Cox log-rank test was used to test for statistically significant differences.

The involvement of the p53 gene in determining the sensitivity of

The involvement of the p53 gene in determining the sensitivity of many cell types toward low linear energy transfer (LET)

radiation is now well established. In contrast to low LET radiation, high LET radiation has several potential advantages over X-rays, one of which is the fact that its effects may be independent of cellular p53 gene status. It is conceivable that effective future therapeutic strategies may be designed oil the basis of genetic and biochemical events involved in cell death. Therefore, the accurate characterization and quantification of the mode of cell death, Such as apoptosis and necrosis, has become increasingly important for the further understanding MK-8776 cell line of the biological effectiveness of high LET radiation. This review discusses the mechanisms of p53-independent apoptosis by high LET radiation.”
“Background: The aim of our study was to determine if ablation and pacing improved

brain perfusion (BP) and cognitive function (CF) in patients with medically refractory rapidly conducted atrial fibrillation (Med Refr RCAF).

Methods and Results: The study included 17 patients with Med Refr RCAF (average age 55.3 +/- 4.5 years). All patients underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography scanning with Tc-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 3 months ALK inhibitor cancer following pacemaker implantation. The BP was significantly lower in all regions in patients with Med Refr RCAF compared with the control group. The greatest BP decrease was

revealed in the inferior frontal (P = 0.002) and posterior parietal (P = 0.024) brain regions. These patients showed cognitive deficit in 94%. There was a direct correlation between BP and CF parameters. Ablation followed by pacemaker implantation had a positive effect on BP and CF in all patients with Med Refr RCAF. Thus, BP increased in the right inferior frontal (P = 0.01), in the left superior frontal (P = 0.007), and in the left temporal (P = 0.005) cortex. These patients demonstrated improvements in immediate and delayed verbal memory, immediate and delayed visual memory, abstract mentation, attention, psychomotor ABT263 speed, as well as in learning.

Conclusions: Patients with atrial fibrillation and rapid ventricular rates refractory to medical treatment have marked signs of brain hypoperfusion and impaired CF. Ablation and pacing improve left ventricular systolic function, thereby increasing BP and improving CF. (PACE 2012; 35: 320-326)”
“The effect of substitutional N, Ce, and Ce + N doping on the electronic structure and optical properties of anatase TiO2 have been investigated by using first-principles calculations and considering the strong correlation effect.

With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program

With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U. S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies.”
“The purpose of this article is to compare the outcomes of three different anterior approaches for three-level cervical spondylosis. The records of 120 patients who underwent anterior

approaches because of three-level cervical spondylosis Apoptosis Compound Library solubility dmso between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Based

on the type of surgery, the patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 was three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF); Group 2 anterior cervical hybrid decompression and fusion (ACHDF, combination of ACDF and ACCF); and Group 3 two-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF). The clinical outcomes including blood loss, operation time, complications, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, C2-C7 angle, segmental angle, and fusion rate were compared. There were no significant differences in JOA improvement and fusion rate among three groups. However, in terms of segmental angle and C2-C7 angle improvement, Group 2 was superior to Group 3

and inferior to Group 1 (all STI571 see more P < 0.01). Group 2 was less in operation time than Group 3 (P < 0.01) and more than Group 1 (P < 0.01). Group 3 had more blood loss than Group 1 and Group 2 (all P < 0.01) and had higher complication rate than Group 1 (P < 0.05). No significant differences in blood loss and complication rate were observed between Group 1 and Group 2 (P > 0.05). ACDF was superior in most outcomes to ACCF and ACHDF. If the compressive pathology could be resolved by discectomy, ACDF should be the treatment of choice. ACHDF was an ideal alternative procedure to ACDF if retro-vertebral pathology existed. ACCF was the last choice considered.”
“Background and ObjectivesPartially replacing plasma with additive solutions in platelet (PLT) concentrates (PCs) may help to reduce transfusion reactions. Constituents of PLT additive solutions (PASs) have been revealed to affect the quality of PCs. Previous studies involved pairwise comparison of identical PLTs with two different PASs or multicomparison using random PLTs with three or more PASs. In this study, we performed parallel comparison using PCs from identical donors with four PASs. In addition to traditional parameters, the release of bioactive substances and plasma proteins was assessed.

Experimental data suggest a key role for endogenous olive PPO and

Experimental data suggest a key role for endogenous olive PPO and PDX enzymatic activities in determining

the phenolic profile of VOO. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important cause of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). The USA300 clone increasingly causes healthcare associated infections. We compared children with SA-CRB due to USA300 versus non-USA300 isolates and identified risk factors for complications.

Methods: Children at Texas Children’s Hospital (TCH) with SA-CRB were identified from a prospective S. aureus surveillance study. S. aureus isolates were characterized by ML323 supplier methicillin susceptibility and pulsed field gel electrophoresis.


From August 2001 to October 2007, 112 children VX-680 order with a first episode of SA-CRB and corresponding isolates were identified. USA300 accounted for 21 isolates. Metastatic infection complicated 10.7% of cases and was associated with methicillin resistance. Other complications were recurrence (n = 16), death (n = 13), thrombosis (n = 9), and intravascular “”cast”" (n = 6). Four patients with non-USA300 SA-CRB had endocarditis. Prolonged bacteremia was more common in methicillin-resistant SA (12/29) than in methicillin-susceptible SA SA-CRB (14/83) (P = 0.007). Complications were more common in patients with bacteremia >= 4 days (16/26 [61.5%]) versus patients with bacteremia >= 4 days (25/86 [29%]) (P = 0.003). The complication rate was lower in patients who had the catheter removed <4 days (22.5%) versus patients whose catheter was removed >= 4 days after infection or not removed (44.4%) (P = 0.02). Children with USA300 versus non-USA300 isolates did not differ with respect to frequency or type of complications.

Conclusions: At Texas Children’s Hospital, the USA300 clone caused 19% of initial

SA-CRB episodes and was associated with methicillin resistance. Complications occurred in 36.6% of the patients and were associated with prolonged bacteremia INCB28060 and catheter removal >= 4 days after infection or failure to remove the catheter.”
“Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic Gram-negative bacillus found worldwide in warm coastal waters. The pathogen has the ability to cause primary sepsis in certain high-risk populations, including patients with chronic liver disease, immunodeficiency, iron storage disorders, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes mellitus. Most reported cases of primary sepsis in the USA are associated with the ingestion of raw or undercooked oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast. The mortality rate for patients with severe sepsis is high, exceeding 50% in most reported series. Other clinical presentations include wound infection and gastroenteritis.

YQS extracted in 50% ethanol and used at concentrations of 500 mg

YQS extracted in 50% ethanol and used at concentrations of 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL exerted the greatest therapeutic effect in infected embryonated hen eggs and was significantly superior to ribavirin (p < 0.05). Therefore, the 50% ethanol extract of YQS seems to be the most effective for the inhibition of influenza-A virus. Based on these results, further studies are warranted to evaluate the use of YQS extracts as a possible therapy for influenza.”
“Recently, we reported that patients with long-term stable good graft function had higher interferon-gamma

(IFN-gamma) and lower IL-4 plasma levels late as compared with early post-transplant. These patients had more often detectable CD3+CD4+CD25+IFN-gamma+Foxp3+ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) late post-transplant than patients with impaired graft function. We therefore speculated that high plasma Copanlisib IFN-gamma late post-transplant might contribute to the maintenance of graft acceptance. Using ELISA and four-color flow cytometry, plasma cytokines and PBL subpopulations were measured in 65 renal transplant recipients with stable graft function late post-transplant. High IFN-gamma plasma levels were associated with low CD19+ B PBL (r = -0.329; p = 0.009)

and low activated CD3+CD8+DR+ T PBL (r = -0.266; p = 0.035). Plasma IFN-gamma increased with time post-transplant (r = 0.288; p = 0.022) and was not associated with the dose of immunosuppressive drugs (p = n.s.). High plasma IFN-gamma was not associated with serum creatinine (r = 0.038; p = 0.765). Five patients showed evidence of chronic allograft nephropathy in previous biopsies and none of them exhibited increased plasma IFN-gamma. In patients with good long-term graft function, high IFN-gamma plasma levels were associated with low numbers of B PBL and activated CD8+ T PBL. High IFN-gamma plasma levels might prevent the development of

an immunological alloresponse and thereby contribute to the maintenance of graft acceptance.”
“Background: RBFOX1 is an important splicing factor regulating developmental and tissue-specific alternative splicing in heart, muscle, and neuronal tissues. Constitutional genetic defects in RBFOX1 are implicated in Mdm2 inhibitor multiple medical conditions.

Results: We identified 14 copy number variants (CNV) involving RBFOX1 from 2,124 consecutive pediatric patients referred for chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), including 13 intragenic deletions and a single intragenic duplication. The clinical significances of the intragenic deletions of RBFOX1 were evaluated.

Conclusions: Our data strongly supports the associations of intragenic deletions of RBFOX1 with a diversity of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, and possibly other clinical features.

ED was assessed by flow-dependent endothelial-mediated

ED was assessed by flow-dependent endothelial-mediated MLN2238 nmr vasodilation (FDD), and functional capacity by 6-minute walk test (6MWT).

RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were randomized to ATV+PLA and 38 to ATV+ALLO. Mean age was 59 +/- 2 years, 82% were male, and 22% had an ischemic etiology. Hypertension was present in 60%

and diabetes in 15% of those studied. No significant differences were observed between baseline measurements and after placebo. After 4 weeks of treatment, both groups showed a significant decrease on MDA (0.9 +/- 0.1 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 and 1.0 +/- 0.5 to 0.9 +/- 0.1 mu mol/liter, p = 0.88), UA (7.4 +/- 0.4 to 6.8 +/- 0.3 and 7.2 +/- 0.4 to 5.0 +/- 0.3 mg/dl, p <0.01) and FDD (3.9 +/- 0.2% to 5.6 +/- 0.4% and 4.6 +/- 0.3% to 7.1 +/- 0.5%, p = 0.07) with increased ecSOD activity (109 +/- 11 to 173 +/- 13 and 98 +/- 10 to 202 +/- 16. U/ml/min, p = 0.41) and improved 6MWT (447 +/- 18 to 487 +/- 19 and 438 +/- 17 to 481 +/- 21 m, p = 0.83), with all values for ATV +PLA and ATV+ALLO, respectively; p-values are for comparison between groups after treatment.

CONCLUSION: Short-term ATV treatment in heart failure (HF) patients reduces oxidative stress and improves

FDD and functional capacity. These beneficial effects are not strenghthened by the addition of alopurinol. J Heart Lung Transplant 2011;30:408-13 (C) 2011 International Society PCI-34051 in vitro of Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Preeclampsia is a big problem in obstetrics. The diagnosis relies mainly on the detection of both hypertension and proteinuria. The gold standard for the determination of proteinuria is 24 h urinary protein creatinine ratio; however, this approach is inconvenient and it is a considerable time consuming process Metabolisms tumor that might bring a delayed diagnosis which might result in delayed treatment. Although spot urine measurement can be done, it has very poor prediction. The use of periodic urinary protein creatinine ratio is proposed as a possible alternative to solve this problem.

Here, the author tries to perform a time effectiveness analysis for reported models on periodical urinary protein creatinine ratio for predicting significant proteinuria in preeclampsia. Data from previously published reports on this topic are used for further analysis. It seems that the alternative, 4 h, gives the most effectiveness in the shortest period of turnaround time. Hence, this alternative is recommended for screening proteinuria.”
“A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave.

Meta-analysis was conducted in a fixed/random effect model Out o

Meta-analysis was conducted in a fixed/random effect model. Out of the 715 papers retrieved 12 studies (3605 cases and 5692 controls) on the association of CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms with endometrial cancer risk in different ethnic groups were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for CYP1B1 gene P005091 manufacturer polymorphisms: R48G (C/G, five studies), L432V

(C/G, 12 studies), N453S (A/G, four studies), and A119S (G/T, five studies). We did not detect any association of CYP1B1 gene A119S polymorphism with endometrial cancer. An association of CYP1B1 gene R48G polymorphism with endometrial cancer was found [GG vs. GC + CC: odds ratio (OR)= 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.73, P < 0.0001; GG vs. CC: OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.91, P=0.03]. We found that CYP1B1 gene L432V polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (G vs. C: OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.43, P=0.007; GC + GG vs. CC: OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.43, P = 0.003; GC vs. CC: OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.29, P = 0.009). Moreover, we detected the association of CYP1B1 gene N453S polymorphism with endometrial cancer (G vs. A: OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94, P = 0.005; GA vs. AA: OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69-0.95,

P = 0.01). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides strong evidence that CYP1B1 gene R48G, TH-302 molecular weight L432V, and N453S polymorphisms are associated SN-38 with endometrial cancer risk, but not A119S. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 20: 112-120 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of medical doctors and nurses in the Emergency Department ED towards the role of clinical pharmacists.

Methods: A pilot study was conducted among the medical and paramedical staff of the ED of

Public Hospital, Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia, Al-Ahsa, using a 24-item questionnaire on Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm-D) program as well as clinical pharmacist and medical staff attitudes toward the availability and possible role of clinical pharmacist in EDs. The data analysed statistically.

Results: Sixteen of the 20 respondents expressed a willingness to participate in the study. Six (37.5 %) of the respondents were doctors while the rest were nursing staff. Ten (62.5 %) of the ED staff were aware of the professional degree held by clinical pharmacists (i.e., Pharm-D), and a majority, 12 (75.0 %) had heard of a health care professional called a clinical pharmacist. While exploring medical staff attitude toward the availability of a full-time pharmacist in EDs, 13 (81.3 %) of the respondents viewed this favorably while that regarding the role of pharmacists in drug adherence and patient care was viewed less favorably. Fourteen (87.5%) disagreed with giving prescription rights to clinical pharmacists for minor ailments.