The lesions were larger in IL-6-deficient strains, and significantly so in IL-6(-/-)ApoE(-/-) recipients. Early immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 alloantibody deposits were observed in the grafts of ApoE-deficient strains and late IgG2a deposits in the grafts of IL-6-deficient strains. A rapid and sustained type I helper T cell (Th1; IgG2a) alloresponse in IL-6(-/-) mice, and a strong type 2 helper T cell (Th2; IgG1) response in ApoE(-/-) mice were observed. IL-6(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice displayed the highest alloantibody titer, with a Th1 dominance.
Unexpectedly, Cyclosporin A cell line IL-6 deficiency in the recipient mice did not prevent CVR lesions but even aggravated them in IL-6(-/-)ApoE(-/-) recipients. This was associated with increased local and systemic alloresponses. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:85-92. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”
“Di(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the
most widely used plasticizer, was investigated to determine whether an oxidative stress process was one of the underlying mechanisms for its testicular toxicity potential. To evaluate the effects of selenium (Se), status on the toxicity of DEHP was further objective of this study, as Se is known to play a critical role in testis and in the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium. Se deficiency was produced in 3-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats feeding them 0.05 mg Se /kg diet for 5 weeks, and Se-supplementation group was on 1 mg Se/kg diet. DEHP-treated groups received 1000 mg/kg dose by gavage during the last 10 days selleck chemicals llc of the feeding period. Activities of antioxidant selenoenzymes [glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)], catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and thus the GSH/GSSG redox ratio; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were measured. DEHP was found to induce oxidative stress in
rat testis, as evidenced by significant decrease in GSH/GSSG redox ratio (>10-fold) and marked Selleck LB-100 increase in TBARS levels, and its effects were more pronounced in Se-deficient rats with approximate to 18.5-fold decrease in GSH/GSSG redox ratio and a significant decrease in GPx4 activity, whereas Se supplementation was protective by providing substantial elevation of redox ratio and reducing the lipid peroxidation. These findings emphasized the critical role of Se as an effective redox regulator and the importance of Se status in protecting testicular tissue from the oxidant stressor activity of DEHP. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 98-107, 2014.”
“We investigated low temperature formation of a 10 nm thick amorphous Ni-Si layer after room temperature deposition of a 7 nm Ni layer on  Si, by in situ transmission electron microscopy analyses.