“Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent

“Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent

and associated with considerable impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment of HRQoL can reveal the burden of disease and BIX 01294 inhibitor post-intervention improvement. This review aims to highlight the importance of HRQoL assessment and outline the tools available for use in clinical trials and real-world clinical practice. A number of validated measures of HRQoL specific to OAB have been developed, offering greater sensitivity and responsiveness over generic instruments. These condition-specific, multi-dimensional and single-item global questionnaires are particularly useful for the multiple and varied symptoms of OAB, as they reflect the patient’s needs, concerns and values. Measurements for lower urinary tract symptoms, e. g. bladder diaries, are being

CHIR-99021 compared with HRQoL instruments to provide greater understanding of the disease and treatment from the patient’s perspective. Therapeutic interventions to improve OAB symptoms should also be evaluated for their effect on the patient’s HRQoL.”
“We present a rigorous comparison between resistivity data and theoretical predictions involving the theory of Palasantzas [G. Palasantzas and J. Barnas, Phys. Rev. B 56, 7726 (1997)], and the modified Sheng, Xing, and Wang-fractal theory [R. C. Munoz et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 205401 (2002)], regarding the resistivity arising from electron scattering by a self-affine fractal surface on gold films using no adjustable parameters. We find that both theories lead to an approximate description of the temperature dependence of the resistivity data. However, the description of charge transport based upon fractal scaling seems oversimplified, and the predicted increase in resistivity arising from electron-surface scattering seems at variance with other

experimental results. If the samples selleck products are made up of grains such that the mean grain diameter D > l(0)(300), the electronic mean free path in the bulk at 300 K, then the predicted increase in resistivity at 4 K is of the order of a few percent. This contradicts published measurements of magnetomorphic effects arising from size effects where electron-surface scattering is the dominant electron scattering mechanism at 4 K. On the contrary, if the samples are made out of grains such that D < l(0)(300), then the dominant electron scattering mechanism controlling the resistivity is not electron-surface scattering but rather electron-grain boundary scattering, and the latter electron scattering mechanism is not included in either theory. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3607974]“
“Introduction and hypothesis The aims of this study are (1) to assess the reliability (test-retest) of the Urgency Severity and Life Impact Questionnaire (USIQ) and (2) to test the effect of extended-release tolterodine on symptoms of urinary urgency using this validated instrument.

Methods: We made use

Methods: We made use selleck compound of the comprehensive database of the Swiss Blood Stem Cells Transplant Group (SBST) to evaluate potential use of mortality rates. Nine institutions reported a total of 4717 HSCT 1427 allogeneic (30.3%), 3290 autologous

(69.7%) in 3808 patients between the years 1997 and 2008. Data were analysed for survival- and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at day 100 and at 5 years.

Results: The data showed marked and significant differences between centres in unadjusted analyses. These differences were absent or marginal when the results were adjusted for disease, year of transplant and the EBMT risk score (a score incorporating patient age, disease stage, time interval between diagnosis and transplantation, and, for allogeneic transplants, donor type and donor-recipient gender combination)

in a multivariable analysis.

Conclusions: These data indicate comparable quality among centres in Switzerland. They show that comparison of crude GSK690693 centre-specific outcome data without adjustment for the patient mix may be misleading. Mandatory data collection and systematic review of all cases within a comprehensive quality management system might, in contrast, serve as a model to ascertain the quality of other cost-intensive therapies in Switzerland.”
“Purpose The present paper investigated gender differences on life satisfaction and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction in Norwegian adolescents aged 13-18 years. The potential moderating role of gender and age in the relation between self-esteem and life satisfaction was also investigated.

Methods A total of 1,239 adolescents from

public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway participated in the school-based survey study. Mean score differences on the variables used in the study were tested using t tests. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between self-esteem and life satisfaction, controlled for gender, age, stress, subjective health, and chronic health conditions.

Results The results showed that boys scored higher than Selleckchem ZVADFMK girls on both self-esteem and life satisfaction. Self-esteem was positively associated with life satisfaction, explaining 24 % of the variance. However, no interaction effect of gender 9 self-esteem or age 9 self-esteem was found in relation to life satisfaction.

Conclusion The results give support for that boys report higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than girls. Self-esteem has a positive role in association with adolescents’ life satisfaction, and this relationship is equally strong for both genders and across age.”
“We describe a 32-year-old man who developed granulomatous thyroiditis (GT) during etanercept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fever and thyroid pain developed 8 months after administration of etanercept. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas consistent with GT were detected in a thyroid biopsy.

The susceptibility of NP and WP starches

The susceptibility of NP and WP starches learn more towards et-amylase decreased at 80 degrees C, but increased in the range of 100 to 130 degrees C. This suggested that a-amylase hydrolysis of HMT starches was influenced by the interplay of: 1) amount of A-type crystallites, 2) starch chain interactions and 3) changes to double helical conformation. Differences in granule morphology in PPA hydrolyzed NP and WP starches were largely influenced by the higher granular swelling in the latter. NP and WP starches exhibited

heterogeneity in degradation (NP > WP) in both their native and HMT states. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Some lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) subtypes may be associated with low-grade inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

A total of 197 consecutive women with non-stress urinary incontinence (non-SUI) LUTS and 18 healthy women without LUTS (normal controls) were enrolled. LUTS include urinary storage, voiding, and post-micturition symptoms. Patients with previous bladder or urethral surgery, active urinary tract infections, or possible neurogenic lesions were excluded. Serum CRP levels were measured GSK461364 before any treatment was given. Patients were stratified to LUTD subgroups

based on a 3-day voiding diary, uroflowmetry, and selective videourodynamic P005091 datasheet studies.

Median CRP levels were significantly higher in women with overactive bladder (OAB) wet (i.e., with urgency incontinence, n = 30, 0.12 mg/dl) than those in women with bladder oversensitivity (n = 68, 0.075 mg/dl, P = 0.008) and the control group (0.055 mg/dl, P = 0.032).

Further analysis revealed that body mass index and maximum flow rate were two independent factors that affected CRP levels. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for using CRP to predict OAB wet was 0.55, and the most predictive cutoff point for CRP was 0.15 mg/dl (sensitivity 43.5 %, specificity 72.7 %).

High serum CRP levels were found in women with OAB wet, and they were related to lower maximum urinary flow rates and higher body mass indices in non-SUI LUTD. However, serum CRP is not a suitable biomarker for discriminating between subtypes of non-SUI LUTD.”
“We investigated the incidence of sapovirus (SaV)-associated gastroenteritis in infants and children in Japan during 2007-2008 and characterized the diversity of SaV-positive strains. SaV was detected in 19 (4%) of 477 fecal specimens. The leading genogroup (79%, 15 cases) comprised intergenogroup recombinant SaVs (GII/GIV).”
“To evaluate the impact of maternal obesity on labour, intrapartual assessment and delivery.

Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysi

Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis; concurrent validity was explored by correlations with comparator scales.

The items of the German heiQ (TM) were well understood by rehabilitation inpatients. The structure of the eight click here heiQ (TM) scales was replicated after minor adjustment. heiQ (TM) scales had higher correlations with comparator scales with similar constructs, particularly mental health concepts than with physical health. Moreover, all heiQ (TM) scales

differentiated between individuals across different levels of depression.

The German heiQ (TM) is comprehensible for German-speaking patients suffering from different types of chronic conditions; it assesses relevant outcomes of self-management programs in a reliable

and valid manner. Further studies involving its practical application are warranted.”
“PURPOSE: To compare wavefront aberration, depth of focus, contrast sensitivity, and in vivo modulation transfer function (MTF) after fellow-eye implantation of aspheric and spherical intraocular lenses (IOLs).

SETTINGS: Department of Ophthalmology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study comprised patients with bilateral cataract selleck kinase inhibitor who received an aspheric AcrySof SN60WF IOL or a spherical AcrySof SN60AT IOL in the first eye and the other IOL in the second eye. Assessments at 3 and 6 months included 100% and 9% logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and photopic and mesopic functional Rigosertib in vitro acuity contrast testing. Total internal and corneal aberrations and depth of focus were computed. Distance-corrected near logMAR acuity was available at 12 months.

RESULTS: At 3 and 6 months, there was no significant difference in 100% and 9% BCVA or photopic contrast sensitivity. Mesopic contrast sensitivity was better and total and internal spherical aberrations were significantly less with the aspheric IOL. Total and internal eye vertical coma was reduced with aspheric IOL. Total MTF was not significantly different

between groups. The aspheric IOL group had 0.46 diopter less depth of focus than the spherical IOL group at 6 months (P<.05). Distance-corrected near acuity was significantly better with the spherical IOL.

CONCLUSIONS: Aspheric IOLs significantly reduced spherical aberration, improving mesopic contrast sensitivity. Vertical coma was reduced with aspheric IOLs. Reduction of aberrations may be responsible for reduced depth of focus with aspheric IOLs. This may be disadvantageous for near vision and reading ability.”
“The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes and dopamine receptors on neurobehavioral effects in referents (n = 53), solvent-workers (n = 144), and chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) patients (n = 33).

Here, we describe the mechanisms underlying the regulation of mit

Here, we describe the mechanisms underlying the regulation of mitochondrial functions during apoptosis by TRAP1.”
“Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) of the lung is an extremely rare, Epstain-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative

AL3818 mouse disease. We report a case of pulmonary LYG that presented as a large necrotic mass.”
“Human kidneys produce more than 4 million litres of virtually protein-free primary urine in a lifetime. In healthy individuals, the sieving process is accomplished by the glomerular filter without the smallest sign of clogging, even in old age. How nature accomplishes this extraordinary task is a mystery, but unravelling the functioning of the glomerular filter is important. The basic principles that govern glomerular filtration are probably

also true for peripheral filtering by fenestrated capillaries. In addition, understanding the sieving process is a prerequisite to understanding the pathogenesis of proteinuria (that is, the leakage of plasma proteins into the urine). Proteinuria is the hallmark of glomerular disease and a major risk factor for systemic cardiovascular LY2157299 concentration complications, a fact that emphasizes the relationship between the glomerular and peripheral filtering capillaries. In this Review, we briefly summarize the major models that have been proposed for the mechanisms of glomerular filtration and discuss their strengths and limitations. A special emphasis is placed on the ‘electrokinetic model’ that we have proposed, a model that could potentially resolve many of the seemingly strange characteristics of the glomerular filtration barrier. Moeller, M. J. & Tenten, V. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 9, 266-277 (2013); published online 26 March 2013; doi:10.1038/nrneph.2013.58″
“The cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzyme superfamily is associated with the metabolism of drugs, environmental pollutants and endogenous substrates with broad overlapping substrate specificities. In addition, species differences between experimental animals and humans in the roles of P450 enzymes in drug metabolism are determinant factors in the drug discovery

process. The CX-6258 induction and inhibition of P450-dependent metabolism, especially in the case of P450 3A enzyems, can cause serious problems in clinical practice and in the attrition of drug candidates because of adverse toxicology or pharmacokinetics. Recently, chimeric mice whose livers have been replaced to a level of 80% or more with human hepatocytes were established using urokinase-type plasminogen activator transgenic/severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice. In the livers of these chimeric mice, hepatic cords and sinusoid-like structures were observed. Moreover, bile canaliculi associated with human hepatocytes were also detected. The mRNA expressions derived from humans of 52 phase I and 26 phase II enzymes (including 20 P450s) and 21 transporters were ascertained in the chimeric mice liver.

The significant correlations of objective clinical tests and a mi

The significant correlations of objective clinical tests and a mixed trauma score (modified Mayo score) with the Quick DASH allows the clinician to compare the postoperative result with the patient’ functional competence in daily activities.”
“Aims: To compare the

patient’s response rate to the Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation test (PNE) and the 1st stage tined-lead placement test (FSTLP) for sacral neuromodulation therapy (SNM). Methods: Single center study on patients with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) or non-obstructive urinary retention, BMS-777607 chemical structure screened with both PNE and FSTLP. Patients were followed prospectively and their response rate based on bladder diary after PNE was compared to that after FSTLP. More than 50% improvement in at least two relevant urinary symptoms was considered selleck kinase inhibitor a positive response. A Wilcoxon paired test was done to compare the rates of the two screening options and logistic regression to determine possible associations. A follow-up was conducted to determine the long-term failure rate. Results: One

hundred patients were included (82 female, 69 OAB). The mean age was 55 years (SD 13). The positive response rate on PNE was 47%. FSTLP showed a 69% positive response rate, which was negatively related to age. The 22% gain in positive response was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and positively associated with female gender and younger age. All 69 patients with a positive response to FSTLP received SNM treatment. Failure rate after an average of 2 years was 2.9%. Conclusions: This study suggests that FSTLP may be a more sensitive screening

method than PNE to identify patients eligible for SNM therapy, warranting randomized trials. Neurourol. Urodyn. 30:1249-1252, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the axial skeleton. Extra-articular manifestations are less common relative to other rheumatic diseases, and vasculitic complications typically involve the ascending aorta and aortic valve. The use see more of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors is efficacious in the treatment of patients with AS. Since their routine use, however, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors have been associated with the development of drug-induced complications including the induction of lupus and both cutaneous and systemic vasculitis. In this report, we describe a patient with severe longstanding AS, who developed Henoch-Schonlein purpura after commencing therapy with etanercept. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor-induced Henoch-Schonlein purpura has been very rarely reported and has been mostly recognized in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

It is noteworthy that slip-down showed a peak in kindergarteners

It is noteworthy that slip-down showed a peak in kindergarteners (4-6 years, 36.1%) and then decreased with age. The incidence of slip-down might be reduced if attention is paid when the kindergarteners are walking on steep stairs or steep flights of stairs. Injury at the

educational institutions increases with the pupil’s age, and therefore safety management in schools is important.”
“The purpose of this study is to investigate the results of first-time surgery for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with preoperatively negative sestamibi scintigraphy and ultrasound.

Data were gathered prospectively in a multicenter selleck chemicals database for quality control in parathyroid surgery. Between 2004 and 2008, 3,158 patients underwent first-time surgery for

sporadic pHPT. A total of 984 patients were subjected to preoperative localization with ultrasound and sestamibi scintigraphy, and in 173 patients, both investigations were negative. Intraoperative findings and early outcome are reported.

One hundred and fifty-five of 173 patients underwent bilateral neck exploration. The median weight of excised parathyroid tissue was 350 mg. In 23 patients (13.3%), the exploration was negative. A total of 112 patients (64.7%) had a histological diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma and 38 patients (22%) had multiglandular disease. Six weeks after operation, 164 patients were available for analysis, and 30 patients (18%) had persistent pHPT. The risk for persistent pHPT increased for patients see more with click here few intraoperatively identified (p = 0.001) and excised (p = 0.024) parathyroid glands. Patients operated with intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iOPTH) had lower risk for persistent pHPT 7/79 (9%) compared with 23/85 patients (27%) operated without iOPTH (p = 0.003).

Negative localization with sestamibi and ultrasound in pHPT infers a highly selected patient population with small

parathyroid adenomas, an alarmingly high rate of negative exploration, and an increased risk for persistent disease. The use of iOPTH influences cure rate favorably.”
“Purpose of review

Fluorescent tracers can provide anatomical and functional information without altering the visual surgical field. Despite the advances that are being made in tracer development, only a few fluorescent tracers are available for urological interventions.

Recent findings

Protoporphyrin IX, hypericin, fluorescein, and indocyanine green were shown to facilitate surgical resection in various ways. Hybrid imaging agents, combining radio and fluorescent labels, have shown improved integration between preoperative and intraoperative imaging. With the rise of surgical fluorescence guidance, various camera systems have been developed that are tailored for optimal detection of the fluorochromes of interest.

In participants <= 60 y of age, a 6% (95% CI: 0 88, 0 97; P =

In participants <= 60 y of age, a 6% (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97; P = 0.002) reduction in risk was observed for the flavan-3-ol catechin when the

highest and the lowest quintiles were compared.

Conclusions: Anthocyanins and some flavone and flavan-3-ol compounds selleckchem may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. These vasodilatory properties may result from specific structural similarities (including the B-ring hydroxylation and methyoxylation pattern). Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:338-47.”
“Interindividual variability in pain sensitivity and the response to analgesic manipulations remains a considerable clinical challenge as well as all area of intense scientific investigation. Techniques in this field have matured rapidly so that much relevant data have emerged only in the past few years. Our increasing understanding of the genetic mediation of these biological phenomena have nonetheless revealed their surprising complexity. This review provides a comprehensive picture and critical analysis of the field and its prospects.”
“Background: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative are working in partnership to develop a malaria vaccine to protect infants and children living in malaria endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, which can be delivered through Acalabrutinib datasheet the Expanded Programme on

Immunization. The RTS, S/AS candidate vaccine has been evaluated in multiple phase I/II studies and shown to have a favourable safety profile and to be well-tolerated in both adults and children. This paper details the design of the phase III multicentre efficacy trial of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine candidate, which is pivotal for licensure and check details policy decision-making.

Methods: The phase III trial is a randomized, controlled, multicentre, participant-and observer-blind study ongoing in 11 centres associated with different malaria transmission settings in seven

countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A minimum of 6,000 children in each of two age categories (6-12 weeks, 5-17 months) have been enrolled. Children were randomized 1: 1: 1 to one of three study groups: (1) primary vaccination with RTS, S/AS01 and booster dose of RTS, S/AS01; (2) primary vaccination with RTS, S/AS01 and a control vaccine at time of booster; (3) primary vaccination with control vaccine and a control vaccine at time of booster. Primary vaccination comprises three doses at monthly intervals; the booster dose is administered at 18 months post-primary course. Subjects will be followed to study month 32. The co-primary objectives are the evaluation of efficacy over one year post-dose 3 against clinical malaria when primary immunization is delivered at: (1) 6-12 weeks of age, with co-administration of DTPwHepB/Hib antigens and OPV; (2) 5-17 months of age.

The common molecular features observed in different tumors determ

The common molecular features observed in different tumors determine clinical actions in a better way than organ-based classification. Thus, comparisons between tumors residing in different locations but with shared molecular characteristics will improve the therapeutic approach and the understanding of the biology of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:70-74. ((c)) 2013 American Cancer Society.”

To elucidate the outcome of transvaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery using polypropylene mesh (Gynemesh; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) for patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage III or IV.



patients who underwent transvaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery from September 2004 through December 2005 were collected and analyzed. All patients underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy P5091 purchase with Gynemesh reinforcement.


The average age

of the patients was 64.1 years and average parity was 3.9. Thirty-four patients had Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage 0, four patients had stage I, and one patient had stage II at a median follow-up time of 18 months postoperatively. The success rate was 97.4%. Only one patient (2.6%) had recurrent genital prolapse (stage II) postoperatively. Quality of life was evaluated before and after the operations. The mean scores on the Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) Selleck CH5424802 were 5.0 +/- 4.6 and 8.7 +/- 6.2

before the operation and 3.0 +/- 4.7 and 3.2 +/- 5.6 after the operation, respectively (P = 0.03 and 0.01). The complication rate was 10.3 %, including one vaginal mesh erosion (2.6%), one dyspareunia (2.6%) and two prolonged bladder drainage (longer than 14 days, 5.1%). The mean duration of postoperative bladder drainage was 2.4 days and mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.1 days. Neither long-term nor major complication was identified.


Transvaginal pelvic reconstructive surgery with polypropylene mesh reinforcement is a safe and effective procedure for POP on 1.5 years’ follow- up. It also GSK2126458 price has positive influence on quality of life.”
“Mildmay Uganda (MUg), an HIV treatment centre near Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has entered into a memorandum of understanding to collaborate with Canadian researchers at the University of Ottawa to develop their research programme and develop an observational cohort database (the MUg observational cohort). The primary objectives of the MUg observational cohort are to monitor clinical care and outcomes of HIV among patients on treatment and to bring awareness to trends that are functional and dysfunctional in HIV care in Uganda. The MUg observational cohort comprises 8835 individuals who initiated combination antiretroviral therapy at MUg between January 2004 and October 2011. There are considerably more women (63.

The influence of rural residency on liver transplant wait-list mo

The influence of rural residency on liver transplant wait-list mortality has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that residence in a rural setting, by imposing challenges to medical care access, might be associated with inferior survival while waiting for liver transplantation. To test this hypothesis, multivariable time-to-event

analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression on data from a consecutive five-yr cohort of 159 primary liver transplant candidates, to derive covariate adjusted LY3023414 mouse effect measures for the association between residence in a rural area and wait-list mortality. For the primary analysis, a standardized, census-based, definition was used to assign rural residency status. The KaplanMeier estimated 90-d and one-yr wait-list mortality for the cohort was 7.6% (95% CI: 4.213.8) and 15.6% (95% CI: 9.425.2). The covariate adjusted hazard ratio for the relationship between Rural and Small Town residency status selleck and wait-list mortality was 0.497 (95% CI: 0.1711.438, p = 0.197) for the Cox regression model and 0.628 (95% CI: 0.2241.757, p = 0.376) for the competing risk regression model. As defined in this study, candidate residence in a rural setting was not found to be associated with inferior survival while awaiting liver transplantation.”
“The electrocaloric effect (ECE)

of BaTiO3 multilayer thick film was investigated by direct calorimetric measurement. The ECE increases monotonically with the enhancement of applied field. The maximum ECE occurs above T-c and shifts to higher temperature with increasing applied field. Under an ultrahigh field of 800 kV/cm, it exhibits a giant ECE of Delta T-7.1 K and Delta S-10.1 J/kg.K at 80 degrees C. The ECE heat follows a general power-law relation with the varying rate of AS1842856 applied field within a certain range. A high cooling power (similar to 50 W/kg) is achieved based on the net-cooling resulting from the different varying rates of rising and falling fields. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3658251]“

(Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O(3)]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O(3) stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O(3) treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O(3)] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO(2)] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content.