“Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent
and associated with considerable impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Assessment of HRQoL can reveal the burden of disease and BIX 01294 inhibitor post-intervention improvement. This review aims to highlight the importance of HRQoL assessment and outline the tools available for use in clinical trials and real-world clinical practice. A number of validated measures of HRQoL specific to OAB have been developed, offering greater sensitivity and responsiveness over generic instruments. These condition-specific, multi-dimensional and single-item global questionnaires are particularly useful for the multiple and varied symptoms of OAB, as they reflect the patient’s needs, concerns and values. Measurements for lower urinary tract symptoms, e. g. bladder diaries, are being
CHIR-99021 compared with HRQoL instruments to provide greater understanding of the disease and treatment from the patient’s perspective. Therapeutic interventions to improve OAB symptoms should also be evaluated for their effect on the patient’s HRQoL.”
“We present a rigorous comparison between resistivity data and theoretical predictions involving the theory of Palasantzas [G. Palasantzas and J. Barnas, Phys. Rev. B 56, 7726 (1997)], and the modified Sheng, Xing, and Wang-fractal theory [R. C. Munoz et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 205401 (2002)], regarding the resistivity arising from electron scattering by a self-affine fractal surface on gold films using no adjustable parameters. We find that both theories lead to an approximate description of the temperature dependence of the resistivity data. However, the description of charge transport based upon fractal scaling seems oversimplified, and the predicted increase in resistivity arising from electron-surface scattering seems at variance with other
experimental results. If the samples selleck products are made up of grains such that the mean grain diameter D > l(0)(300), the electronic mean free path in the bulk at 300 K, then the predicted increase in resistivity at 4 K is of the order of a few percent. This contradicts published measurements of magnetomorphic effects arising from size effects where electron-surface scattering is the dominant electron scattering mechanism at 4 K. On the contrary, if the samples are made out of grains such that D < l(0)(300), then the dominant electron scattering mechanism controlling the resistivity is not electron-surface scattering but rather electron-grain boundary scattering, and the latter electron scattering mechanism is not included in either theory. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3607974]“
“Introduction and hypothesis The aims of this study are (1) to assess the reliability (test-retest) of the Urgency Severity and Life Impact Questionnaire (USIQ) and (2) to test the effect of extended-release tolterodine on symptoms of urinary urgency using this validated instrument.