It has been suggested that the two basic amine sites of Az
interact with the negatively charged heptose-phosphate region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to enter gram-negative bacteria . F. novicida transposon insertion mutants in the genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production (wbtN, wbtE, wbtQ and wbtA) were tested to determine if there might be a role of LPS in Az binding and penetration. Mutations in genes responsible for the synthesis LDN-193189 ic50 of the O-antigen in F. novicida have been previously shown to decrease virulence and resistance to serum killing while macrophage uptake and replication remained unaffected . A primary mode of bacterial resistance to antibacterial drugs is the
expression of drug efflux selleck pumps such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC), the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters, and Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) efflux system. These inner membrane transport Selleckchem PD173074 systems are often coupled to the outer membrane TolC system . Francisella novicida has two tolC-like proteins, tolC and the highly related fltC . The ABC Superfamily is thought to be responsible for the export of many different antibiotics. For example, in E. coli, macrolides are thought to be transported by the ABC transporter MacAB . Although a potential macA gene was identified in F. novicida (FTN_1692), no gene corresponding to macB could be identified in the F. novicida genome. The RND efflux system consists of a tripartite transporter with an RND pump protein located in the cytoplasmic membrane (AcrB) and a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (AcrA) coupled to the TolC protein in the outer membrane (Figure 1). The RND system can pump many compounds, including macrolides . The AcrAB
this website RND efflux pump was recently demonstrated to be required for F. tularensis LVS virulence in mice , but not in F. tularensis Schu S4 . The function of the RND efflux system is the removal of harmful substances from inside the cytosol of the bacteria directly to the external medium bypassing the periplasm . Thus we hypothesized that mutants in the RND efflux system would have altered sensitivity to Az. Transposon insertion mutants of components of the RND efflux system in F. novicida, including tolC, fltC, acrA, and acrB, were tested for their sensitivity to Az. The dsbB gene encodes the cytoplasmic membrane protein that is involved in disulfide bond formation in the periplasm. A dsbB mutant in F. novicida was tested because it is transcriptionally linked in an operon with acrA and acrB in Francisella. Mutants ΔacrA and ΔacrB were also tested in the fully virulent strain, F. tularensis Schu S4 . Figure 1 RND efflux pump. A schematic of the RND efflux pump, following , to illustrate the relationship between TolC, AcrA and AcrB.