Therefore, in-vivo DC expansion system using such cytokines might

Therefore, in-vivo DC expansion system using such cytokines might not be preferable to examine the essential function of AZM in the present

report. However, our in-vivo Autophagy inhibitor ic50 data suggest that acute GVHD was clearly suppressed, clinically and pathologically, by oral AZM (Figs 1 and 2). It is tempting to speculate that AZM-treated DCs may be related functionally to regulatory DCs, not only in vitro but also in vivo, and might induce Treg in an allogeneic BMT setting. We are also interested in testing whether injection of AZM-treated DCs to recipients following allogeneic BMT could attenuate acute GVHD, as observed with regulatory DCs [38]. However, it might be difficult to develop and expand these DCs ex vivo. Simply administering AZM orally to recipients would be much more practical from the clinical viewpoint. Next, we confirmed the effects of AZM on donor lymphocytes. Tomazic et al. [44] reported that the absence of impairment of T and B lymphocytes by AZM might be an important property of this drug, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Our data for C57BL/6 murine lymphocytes are compatible with their results (Fig. 3). The fact that AZM has no deleterious effects on T lymphocyte functions in this setting

is important for preservation of the graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL) effect of AZM therapy. Conversely, commonly used immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus (a 23-membered ring-macrolide) and cyclosporin inhibit T lymphocyte functions strongly by blocking the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, resulting in susceptibility to infections and a decreased GVL effect. Moreover, potential concerns for the use of these calcineurin inhibitors include renal toxicity, veno-occlusive disease of the liver, hypertension, hyperglycaemia and neurological side effects [45]. In contrast, AZM has been used safely worldwide as an antibiotic. Nevertheless, AZM is not without its own safety issues: reversible hearing

loss with high doses (600 mg daily for 1·5–20 weeks) [46] and long-term treatment (600 mg once weekly for 1 year) [47] and cardiovascular effects; specifically, prolongation of the QT interval that leads to torsades de pointes, an abnormal heart rhythm that can be fatal [48]. In addition to the immunoregulatory effects of AZM, its anti-microbial L-NAME HCl effect may also be important in BMT as bacteria and bacterial products, especially LPS, are associated with exacerbation of GVHD [49, 50]. In the clinical setting, Gram-negative gut decontamination has actually been found to reduce the incidence of GVHD [51-53]. Interestingly, some investigators reported that changes in the microbial flora, due to intestinal inflammation caused by TBI as preconditioning for murine recipients of allogeneic BMT, influenced the severity of acute GVHD, and that manipulation of the intestinal flora enabled regulation of acute GVHD [53, 54].

A search of relevant medical databases was performed to identify

A search of relevant medical databases was performed to identify literature providing evidence for each technology. Levels of evidence were thus accumulated and applied to each technique. There is a relative paucity of evidence for many of the more recent technologies described in the field of microsurgery, with no randomized controlled trials, and most studies in the field comprising case series only. Current evidence-based suggestions include

the use of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the preoperative planning of perforator flaps, the intraoperative use of a mechanical anastomotic coupling aide (particularly the Unilink® coupler), and postoperative flap monitoring with strict protocols using clinical bedside monitoring and/or the implantable

Doppler probe. Despite the breadth of technologies introduced into the field of microsurgery, there is substantial variation in the degree of evidence presented for FK506 each, suggesting the role for much future research, particularly from emerging technologies such as robotics and modern simulators. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. “
“The problem of prevention of lymphatic injuries in surgery is extremely important if we think about the frequency of both early complications such as lymphorrhea, lymphocele, wound dehiscence, and infections and late complications such as lymphangites and lymphedema. Nowadays, it is possible to identify risk patients and prevent these lesions or BYL719 mouse treat them at an early stage. This article helps to demonstrate how it is important to integrate diagnostic and clinical findings to better PDK4 understand how to properly identify risk patients for lymphatic injuries and, therefore, when it is useful and proper

to do prevention. Authors report their experiences in the prevention and treatment of lymphatic injuries after surgical operations and trauma. After an accurate diagnostic approach, prevention is based on different technical procedures among which microsurgical procedures. It is very important to follow-up the patient not only clinically but also by lymphoscintigraphy. It was identified a protocol of prevention of secondary limb lymphedema that included, from the diagnostic point of view, lymphoscintigraphy and, as concerns therapy, it also recognized a role to early microsurgery. It is necessary to accurately follow-up the patient who has undergone an operation at risk for the appearance of lymphatic complications and, even better, to assess clinically and by lymphoscintigraphy the patient before surgical operation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2010. “
“In healthy people, no retrograde lymph flow occurs because of valves in collecting lymph vessels. However, in secondary lymphedema after lymph node dissection, lymph retention and lymphatic hypertension occurs and valvular dysfunction induces retrograde lymph flow.

Conclusion: Single Aliskiren treatment has renal and vascular pro

Conclusion: Single Aliskiren treatment has renal and vascular protective effects in hypertensive patients with CKD. It inhibited plasma renin activity but did not affect serum s(P)RR levels in these patients. ERIGUCHI MASAHIRO, learn more TORISU KUMIKO, MASUTANI KOSUKE, TSURUYA KAZUHIKO, KITAZONO TAKANARI Department of Medicine and Clinical Science Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University Introduction: Recently, catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (DNx) has been applied in the clinical setting. Despite treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors and β-blockers for most

patients with DNx involved in these clinical studies, potential beneficial effects beyond blood pressure control have not been fully elucidated. The current study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of bidirectional

cardio-renal interaction, including the cycle involving the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and RAS. We speculated that the mechanisms of the cardio-renal cycle may involve renal sympathetic nerves driving disruption of local RAS. Methods: A Wistar rat chronic Nω-nitro-L-arginine NVP-BKM120 methyl ester (L-NAME; a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) administration model was used to induce damage both in the heart and kidney, similar to cardio-renal syndrome. The rats were divided into four groups: control, L-NAME, L-NAME with bilateral DNx, and L-NAME with hydralazine group. Cardio-renal injury, SNS, circulating RAS and local RAS were evaluated. We also examined rats treated with L-NAME + unilateral DNx to confirm direct sympathetic regulation of intrarenal RAS. Serial measurements of kidney angiotensin II and urinary

angiotensinogen of both kidneys were performed to examine the laterality of local RAS within the same rats. Results: L-NAME induced SNS-RAS over-activity Org 27569 and cardio-renal injury accompanied by local RAS elevations. These changes were suppressed by bilateral DNx, but not by hydralazine treatment, even though blood pressure was kept to the same levels. Although L-NAME induced local RAS activation to similar levels in both organs, kidney angiotensinogen mRNA was suppressed contradictory; that was different from the heart with increasing in angiotensinogen mRNA. Immunostaining for angiotensinogen suggested that DNx suppressed local generation of angiotensinogen by activating macrophages/cardiac fibroblasts in the heart and circulatory angiotensinogen excretion from glomeruli of the kidney. In term of unilateral DNx model, the levels of kidney angiotensin II and urinary angiotensinogen from denervated kidneys were less than the levels from contralateral innervated kidneys within the same rats. Renal injury in denervated kidneys was alleviated compared with contralateral innervated kidneys by the end of the study.

6% of the total splenocyte population 48 h after infection of WT

6% of the total splenocyte population 48 h after infection of WT mice, and displayed upregulated CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC class II expression as well as a DC morphology. Serbina et al. [6] further showed

that the production of TNF-α and NO was markedly reduced in CCR2−/− mice, an observation in-line with the high susceptibility of these mice to Listeria mono-cytogenes infection, whereas CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were preserved. The identified monocyte-derived DCs were named TIP (TNF-iNOS producing) DCs, and were shown to GS-1101 order play a crucial role in early antimicrobial defense, with their recruitment requiring CCR2 [6]. Of note, these TIP-DCs were not directly infected with Listeria monocytogenes and therefore are probably not involved in bacterial transport to the spleen [6]. Interestingly, in another study, the resistance to Leishmania major infection (in C57BL/6 mice) was associated with the presence of iNOS-producing inflammatory DCs that depend 3-deazaneplanocin A in vitro on a Th1 microenvironment, that is, IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells. By contrast, STAT-6-deficient BALB/c mice, which are defective in IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, displayed

higher recruitment of iNOS-DC in LN following Leishmania major infection [8]. Similarly, inflammatory DCs were shown to be the main iNOS-producing cells in the spleen and peritoneal cavity of mice infected with Brucella melitensis and their activation required TLR4- or TLR9-mediated MYD88-dependent triggering [9] (Fig. 2). Although these inflammatory DCs have been shown to play a beneficial role in intracellular pathogen clearance, they may also Avelestat (AZD9668) mediate immune

pathology during parasitic infection [11]. In Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice, bone marrow derived monocytes were found to be recruited to the spleen, LNs, and liver where they differentiated into mature inflammatory DCs and represented a major cellular source of TNF and iNOS. Infected IL-10 KO mice had a higher proportion of inflammatory DCs but this increased population was associated with enhanced liver injury and early death of the host. Collectively, these observations [8, 11] show that Th1-type cytokines favor the differentiation of inflammatory DCs at the site of infection, whereas IL-10, IL-4, and IL-13 act as negative regulators. Monocyte emigration from the bone marrow in steady state conditions and during Listeria monocytogenes infection has been shown to be dependent on CCR2 signaling, but CCR2 appears not to be required for migration from the blood to the tissues [12]. Thus, in CCR2−/− mice, monocytes are retained in the bone marrow and resemble the inflammatory DCs that are normally recruited to the spleens of WT mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.

The percentage of both CD28null subsets expressing perforin and g

The percentage of both CD28null subsets expressing perforin and granzyme levels are increased further in patients with BOS with a greater percentage of CD28null/CD8+ cells expressing these cytotoxic molecules, suggesting that the CD28null/CD8+ subset is potentially the most cytotoxic subset. T cells have been shown to migrate to the lung and re-enter

the circulation and, as such, these cytotoxic cells identified in the peripheral blood of these patients may be reflective of cell populations in the lungs of these patients [18]. We have shown previously that BOS is associated with increased check details granzyme B, IFN-γ and TNF-α by CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets [2, 3]. We now show that CD28null CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets (not their CD28+ counterparts) Dactolisib are the producers

of these increased cytotoxic/proinflammatory molecules. The findings of a correlation between CD28null/CD8+ T cells and FEV1 suggest that this T cell subset may be associated with a decline in lung function. Our findings are consistent with other reports of CD28null/CD8+ T cells with high cytotoxic potential in other inflammatory diseases [19-21]. Interestingly, cytotoxic CD28null/CD8+ T cells containing high levels of perforin/granzyme have been shown to be increased in sputum from asthmatic patients [22]. Our present study shows that the percentage of both CD28+ and CD28null T cells producing IL-2 was decreased in stable patients compared with healthy controls (consistent with effective therapeutic strategy), while in BOS the percentage was increased, suggesting that strategies applied currently to suppress IL-2 production in BOS may be ineffective. To our knowledge, this

is the first study to show an increase in IL-2 production by both CD28+ and CD28null subsets in an inflammatory disease. While CD28 is the major co-stimulatory molecule on T cells, we hypothesized that following persistent antigenic stimulation, this molecule would be down-regulated and that other co-stimulatory molecules would then play an important Etomidate role in the co-stimulatory signal required for effective proliferation and cytokine production [6]. Consistent with this hypothesis, we showed that both CD137 and CD152 co-stimulatory molecules were up-regulated on CD28null (both CD4+ and CD8+) T cells in BOS, suggesting that alternate co-stimulation to CD28 may be important in the production of cytotoxic T cells at the time of graft failure. CD154 and CD134 expression was also increased on CD28null T cells, but only on the CD4+ subset, suggesting that these co-stimulatory molecules may be important in CD28null/CD4+ proliferation and cytokine production, and targeting these molecules may have potential in reducing CD28null/CD4+ driven inflammation.

e the control group, there was significantly higher localisation

e. the control group, there was significantly higher localisation of neutrophils in the liver, spleen and lungs compared to the DSS recipient mice (Fig. 5b). However, in contrast to the DSS recipients, there was no bioluminescence signal evident in the naive colons (Fig. 5a). In both human and experimental IBD, PMN invasion of the intestinal lamina propria and crypts correlates with tissue damage and clinical symptoms, suggesting that targeting neutrophil recruitment is a viable therapeutic strategy for IBD. This study presents a robust model to analyse the

biology of neutrophil trafficking that can also be used in preclinical studies to evaluate new therapeutic Fulvestrant solubility dmso compounds aimed specifically at blocking neutrophil recruitment. The first step in developing the model was to characterise the purity and functional properties of the neutrophil population from thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. Phenotypic analysis of the peritoneal exudate isolated 12 h post-i.p. administration of thioglycollate, revealed 80% neutrophil purity. In addition, the cells were activated and NVP-LDE225 cell line functionally responsive to recombinant KC in vitro, and their chemotaxis was inhibited by the presence of an anti-KC antibody. These results showed that the post-thioglycollate peritoneal exudate population of neutrophils was appropriate for the adoptive transfer

model. Bioluminescence imaging of whole-body and ex vivo organs was C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) used to track and quantify neutrophil trafficking following adoptive transfer of luc+ peritoneal exudate cells from transgenic donors. This is a non-invasive technology allowing real-time detection of tagged cells in vivo using CCD cameras due to the detection of visible light produced by luciferase-catalysed reactions [31]. In contrast to other imaging modalities, such as positron emission

tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging is less complicated, less labour-intensive and relatively low cost while still providing quantitative, spatial and temporal data. In addition, bioluminescence overcomes the problems encountered commonly with using fluorescent labels such as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), namely the exponentially decreasing light intensity with tissue depth and the limited sensitivity and specificity as a result of endogenous tissue autofluorescence [32,33]. So far, bioluminescence has been used to monitor infection progression, transgene expression, tumour growth and metastasis, transplantation, toxicology and gene therapy [31]. In the context of cell tracking, Sheikh et al. successfully used bioluminescence imaging to track bone marrow mononuclear cell homing in ischaemic myocardium [34], while Costa et al. used a retroviral vector containing luciferase and GFP to illuminate the migratory patterns of CD4+ T cells in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis [35].

Slides were analyzed using

Slides were analyzed using GDC-0068 price a Nikon Eclipse E800 microscope (Nikon USA, Melville, NY, USA) equipped with a digital camera Nikon DXM1200. Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen Life Technologies, CA, USA), following the manufacturer’s instructions. cDNA synthesis was performed in a final volume of 20 μL using ImProm-II Reverse Transcriptase (Promega Corporation, WI, USA). PCR amplification was performed with SYBR Green Master Mix (Applied

Biosystems, CA, USA) and analyzed with an ABI Prism 7500 sequence detector (Applied Biosystems), using the 2−ΔΔCT method [50]. The primers used for PCR amplification are listed in Table 1. Results are expressed as the mean ± SD of the indicated number of experiments. Statistical analysis of control and experimental groups was performed by Student’s t-test

using Prism 5 GraphPad (La Jolla, CA, USA) software. Differences were considered statistically significant when p ≤ 0.05. We thank Marcelo Dias Baruffi for helpful discussion, Julio Siqueira and Domingos Soares de Souza Filho for expert animal care, Vani MA Correa for excellent technical assistance, and João Santana da Silva for the CD103 antibody. This work was supported by grants from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional do Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) to E.S.B. and M.C.R.B. and grants from Fundación Sales and Agencia Nacional de AZD0530 nmr Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (Argentina) to G.A.R. The authors declare no commercial conflict of interest. “
“Patients with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency exhibit spontaneous and partial clinical remission associated with

somatic reversion of inherited mutations. We report a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (T-B- SCID) due to ADA deficiency diagnosed at the age of 1 month, whose lymphocyte counts including CD4+ and CD8+ T and NK cells began to improve after several months with normalization of ADA activity in Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), as a result of somatic mosaicism caused by monoallelic reversion of the causative mutation in the ADA gene. He was not eligible for haematopoietic Fenbendazole stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or gene therapy (GT); therefore he was placed on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with bovine PEG-ADA. The follow-up of metabolic and immunologic responses to ERT included gradual improvement in ADA activity in erythrocytes and transient expansion of most lymphocyte subsets, followed by gradual stabilization of CD4+ and CD8+ T (with naïve phenotype) and NK cells, and sustained expansion of TCRγδ+ T cells. This was accompanied by the disappearance of the revertant T cells as shown by DNA sequencing from PBL.

Electromyography, nerve conduction studies, and serum and urinary

Electromyography, nerve conduction studies, and serum and urinary amino acid analysis were unremarkable. Analysis of CSF revealed mild elevation of IgG (7.5 mg/dL). Bone marrow examination was inconclusive. Activities of sphingomyelinase and hexosaminidase were within normal limits. Abdominal ultrasonography was negative for hepatosplenomegaly, as it was during selleck chemicals the

entire course of the illness. By the age of 14 years, the patient had become tetraparetic. A gastrostomy tube was placed because of increasing dysphagia at 16 years of age. He subsequently became bedridden with total dependence. At age 22, a tracheostomy was performed and respiratory PD98059 mw support with mechanical ventilation was started. Brain MRI performed at 31 years of age revealed marked brain atrophy, especially in the frontotemporal lobes, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum (Fig. 1). In contrast to severe involvement of the frontotemporal region, the parieto-occipital region was relatively spared

(Fig. 1). Seizures were well-controlled by phenobarbital and carbamazepine, and no apparent episodes occurred during the last 12 years of his life. The last EEG was performed at age 31 and showed no epileptic discharge. He died from acute pancreatitis at age 37 years. The clinical diagnosis at the time of death was unclassified neurodegenerative disease of childhood onset.

An autopsy was performed Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase 3 h after death. All organs were fixed with 10% phosphate-buffered formalin. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were cut into 6 μm sections, which were then stained with HE. CNS tissue sections were subjected to KB staining. The Gallyas-Braak silver stain and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected CNS sections. For filipin staining, liver tissue was embedded in O.C.T. compound (Sakura Finetechnical Co., Tokyo, Japan) and cryosections of 10 μm thickness were cut using a Bright OTF Cryostat (Bright Instrument Co. Ltd, Huntingdon, UK). Sections were immersed in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin for 10 min at 4°C, washed with distilled water three times, and incubated with 0.1 mg/mL filipin III (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) for 1 h at room temperature in the dark. After rinsing in PBS, sections were coverslipped using a SlowFade Antifade kit (Invitrogen Life Technologies Corp., Carlsbad, CA, USA) and fluorescent images were acquired using a fluorescent microscope (Axiovert 200 M, Carl Zeiss Co. Ltd, Oberkochen, Germany).

However, B cell frequencies are very low in the CNS and only the

However, B cell frequencies are very low in the CNS and only the arrival of new and sensitive techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enabled the analysis of their maturation and developmental status. Earlier studies analysed the diversity of the third complementarity determining region (CDR3 gene fragments) of these CSF

B cells and found intrathecal expansion in MS patients. Furthermore, these compound screening assay B cells were T cell-dependent hypermutated post-germinal centre antibody-forming or memory cells that had been positively selected through their antigen receptor [19]. Interestingly, V(D)J genes utilized by peripheral and central B cells differed, which is indicative of compartmentalized clonal expansion [20]. Intensive analysis revealed

that CSF antibodies did not bind to myelin-basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP) [17] or common viruses [21]; instead, some of them bound to targets on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes [22]. Somatic hypermutation of Ig transcripts in the CNS imply a local antigen-driven T cell-dependent process [23]. More recent studies showed that B cells are antigen-experienced, and identified different clonotypes in different plaques from the same individual [22]. Mutated B cells from MS lesions might sequentially colonize germinal centres (GC) in secondary lymphoid organs, undergo reactivation and then invade other Fossariinae brain regions. GC are the classic sites where mature B cells respond to antigen-bearing follicular dendritic cells (plus helper T cells), hypermutate their antibodies through somatic hypermutation and then migrate from the dark to the light zone, where they also class-switch and generate memory and plasma cells. In MS, clonally related B cells populate meninges, inflammatory lesions, normal appearing white matter and CSF and CNS-resident B cells shared between CSF and CNS produced antibodies, which can be detected in the CNS [24,25]. Indeed, there are follicle-like structures in the meninges in secondary progressive MS patients [13–15,26]

that have attracted much recent attention. If their suspected GC functions are confirmed, they may provide novel clues to the pathogenesis of MS. Another interesting line of investigation is the role of B cells as hosts for EBV. First isolated from Burkitt’s lymphomas in 1964 [27], its causal role in infectious mononucleosis (IM) was discovered by accident 4 years later. A laboratory technician working with lymphoma samples contracted EBV, seroconverted and developed IM. More than 90% of the population is infected with EBV by age of approximately 20 in Europe and much earlier in developing countries [28]. Whereas infection in childhood is mainly asymptomatic, the presentation is typical of IM in approximately half of first infections in young adults.

The data obtained (Fig S1) were essentially identical to those s

The data obtained (Fig. S1) were essentially identical to those shown in Fig. 6c when anti-TNF-α was added on day 0 only. Therefore, although TNF-α was capable of modulating BMDC production, it did not appear to be directly involved in the changes induced Pritelivir in vitro by ligands for TLR4 or TLR9, suggesting that other molecules were likely

to be responsible. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether bacterial and viral products are able to affect the generation of DCs from BM in vitro. Our data suggested that inactivated influenza A viruses and the TLR3 ligands Poly I and Poly I:C reduce cellular proliferation in the cultures and cause a diminution in BMDC production. These data complement and extend those of previous studies, which suggest that Poly I:C inhibits granulocyte colony formation by bone marrow cells in vivo.20. Viral infections result in the secretion of type 1 IFNs (IFN-αβ), which are crucial mediators of the antiviral response, and there is evidence to suggest that IFN-αβ inhibits the in vitro differentiation of DC from CD14+ precursors.21 Experiments with IFNAR-deficient bone marrow cells have shown that the IFNAR is required to buy PD98059 modulate the changes in BMDC production induced by culture with influenza viruses.

This role was confirmed by observations showing that recombinant IFN-α was able to replicate the effects, and neutralizing antibody to IFN-α was able to block them. These data are supported by other studies demonstrating an inhibitory effect of IFN-αβ on DC differentiation from monocyte-derived precursors,21 and by evidence which suggests that type 1 IFNs Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase are cytotoxic for granulocytic progenitor cells in vitro.22 More recently, transient suppression of haematopoiesis in vivo has been shown to be caused by high levels of IFN-αβ.23 Taken together, this evidence suggests that IFN-αβ inhibits the differentiation of haematopoietic progenitors in a way that leads to reduced BMDC production. In vivo infection with influenza virus induces

a transient, but significant, loss of bone marrow B-lineage cells.24 A similar reduction in bone marrow B-lineage cells was observed during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice.4 This bone marrow B-cell depletion accompanying acute influenza infection was found to be mediated by a mechanism involving TNF-α and LT-α. Interestingly, bone marrow B-cell depletion following infection with LCMV or influenza virus does not appear to be mediated by IFN-αβ.4 This contrasts with our data which show that in vitro BMDC depletion in response to influenza virus is IFN-αβ dependent, suggesting that there are differences in the signalling pathways activated in BMDC and bone marrow B-precursor cells following the recognition of influenza virus.