First, the assumptions related to the attribution to osteoporosis

First, the assumptions related to the Ralimetinib molecular weight attribution to osteoporosis in women were changed by using Quebec data on fragility fractures among 2,075 women 50 years and older (e.g., 75.7% between the ages of 50 to 59 years old to 91.8% in the group over the age of

80) [22]. Second, although we identified individuals who were hospitalized with a most responsible diagnosis code of osteoporosis but without a diagnosis of fracture ATM Kinase Inhibitor research buy or intervention code, the base case analysis excluded those individuals, as we were uncertain how to attribute the admission. In an additional sensitivity analysis, we included these cases in our cost estimates. Third, in the absence of accurate data on the reasons for admissions to long-term care facilities, the primary analysis ignored the costs associated with those individuals residing on a yearly basis in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis. Based on an economic model developed for the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care’s Medical

Advisory Secretariat [23], it was estimated that 17% of men and 21% of women over the age of 65 were residents in long-term care facilities following an osteoporosis-related A-1210477 in vivo fracture. Finally, the last sensitivity analysis was conducted assuming that all high and low-trauma fractures were due to osteoporosis. This scenario was based on the evidence generated by Mackey et al. showing that low BMD predicts both high and low-trauma fractures [18] and that antiresorptive treatments prevent high- and low-trauma fractures [24], leading to the recommendation for using all fractures as standard outcomes in osteoporosis trials and observational studies. Results Hospitalizations, same day surgeries, Verteporfin solubility dmso and emergency room visits due to osteoporosis-related fractures

As shown in Table 2, CIHI data for all Canadian provinces except Quebec indicated that 44,707 hospitalizations were attributable to osteoporosis-related fractures in FY 2007/2008. The number of osteoporosis-related fractures in Quebec was estimated at 12,706 for a total of 57,413 hospitalizations in Canada. These hospitalizations resulted in 832,594 hospitalized days. The mean length of stay was 14.5 days [median (Q1, Q3) = 7 (1, 0.15) days]. Fractures in women accounted for approximately 70% of all hospital admissions (men—16,855; women—40,550) and hospitalized days (men—228,231; women—604,363). Among women, hip fractures accounted for half of the hospitalized days (316,607 out of 604,363). Over 70% of all fractures occurred in individuals older than 70 years with the highest number of hospitalizations observed in the 81–90 years age group (21,033 of 57,413). In addition, osteoporosis-related fractures resulted in 112,740 emergency room visits and 3,433 same day surgeries. Eighty percent of all same day surgeries were due to wrist fractures while wrist (30%), hip (23%), and other fracture sites (30%) accounted for more than 80% of all osteoporosis-related fracture visits to the ER (Fig. 1).

723 Transcription, protein synthesis and export CHMP6 Chromatin M

723 Transcription, protein synthesis and export CHMP6 Chromatin Modifying Protein 6 -3.599   RANBP1 RAN Binding Protein 1 -3.48   EHBP1 EH Domain Binding Protein 1 -3.106   RRM2 Ribonucleotide Reductase M2 Polypeptide -2.957   CTDSPL Small Carboxy-Terminal Domain Phosphatase -2.838   DARS2 Aspartyl-Trna Synthetase 2 (Mitochondrial) -2.795   POLR3K Polymerase (RNA) Subunit

K -2.701 Nucleotide synthesis UNG Uracil-DNA Glycosylase -3.553   GLRX Glutaredoxin -3.325   DUT dUTP Pyrophosphatase -2.967   TYMS Thymidylate Synthetase -2.687 Energy metabolism ATAD4 ATPase Family, AAA Domain Containing 4 -3.185   COX7B Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 7B -2.893 Cytoskeleton/cytokinesis M-RIP Myosin Phosphatase-Rho Interacting Protein -2.954   MALL Mal, T-Cell Differentiation Protein-Like -2.918   ARHGAP29 Rho Gtpase Activating Protein 29 -2.909   ROCK2 Rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 -2.701 Cytokine TGFB2 MK-0457 Transforming Growth Factor, ABT-263 Beta 2 -2.909   C1QTNF3 C1q And TNF Related Protein 3 2.701 Protease SPINK1 selleck Serine Peptidase Inhibitor, Kazal Type 1 -2.889 Cell adhesion LGALS4 Galectin 4 -2.869 Redox TXNIP Thioredoxin Interacting Protein -2.843 Cell signalling HS1BP3 HS1-Binding Protein 3 -2.755 Anti-inflammatory ANXA1 Annexin A1 (Lipocortin 1) -2.703 Matrix LAMB1 Laminin, Beta 1 -2.702 Signalling pathways IPA identified a number of canonical signalling pathways that were most

significantly affected (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows a simplified composite of all genes identified by IPA as being part of specific signalling pathways that are most significantly regulated, together with their individual S scores. Here the central mediator is the NF-κB signalling pathway that is clearly contributory in affecting the signalling through the Death Receptor, IL6, IL10, Toll-like receptor and PPAR pathways (also see Gene Networks section below and Figure 3 which also features NF-κB). In addition, several other canonical signalling pathways, some of which do not feature NF-κB, were also identified as significantly affected. Figure

1 Canonical Signalling Pathways identified by IPA software as significantly regulated by C. jejuni BCE. A Fisher’s exact test was used to calculate a p-value (Bars) determining the probability that the association between the genes in the dataset and the canonical pathway can be explained by chance Dipeptidyl peptidase alone. Threshold refers to the cut off for p < 0.05. Figure 2 Regulated molecules in canonical signalling pathways identified by IPA. Individual pathways are identified by colours assigned in the black-backed heading at the top. Significantly up-regulated genes are shown in darker colour. Significantly down-regulated genes are shown stippled. Numerical values beside regulated genes show the S score. All genes identified by the IPA programme as significantly regulated have been included, together with a limited number of non-regulated genes to portray a simplified view of pathway continuity.

Tumors of mice treated

with tamoxifen or fed with ENL had

Tumors of mice treated

with tamoxifen or fed with ENL had significantly increased extracellular IL-Ra levels compared with control tumors exposed to estradiol only in a similar fashion as shown in vitro and these tumors also exhibited decreased vessel area. Moreover, treatment with subcutaneous injections of recombinant IL-Ra protein resulted in tumor regression in vivo despite continued estradiol exposure. We conclude that estradiol down-regulate ATM Kinase Inhibitor order IL-1Ra in breast cancer cells. In addition, we show that an anti-estrogenic effect of ENL in breast cancer include restoration of IL-1Ra levels and that one of the anti-tumorigenic effects of tamoxifen may be mediated via potent increase of IL-1Ra EPZ-6438 research buy levels in estrogen dependent breast cancer. Taken together our results suggest that increasing IL-1Ra may be a possible anti-estrogen therapeutic option for breast cancer treatment and prevention. O130 Non Invasive Molecular Monitoring of Tumor Angiogenesis Laura Ciarloni1,2, Francesca Botta1, Curzio Rüegg1,3, Francesca Botta 1 1 Division of Experimental Oncology, Centre Pluridisciplinaire d’Oncologie (CePO), Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV)

and University of Lausanne, CB-839 chemical structure Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 Diagnoplex SA, Epalinges, Switzerland, 3 National Center for Competence in Research, Molecular Oncology, ISREC-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland Tumor angiogenesis is a critical event in tumor growth and progression. Anti-angiogenic drug such as Avastin, Sutent, Nexavar and Torisel, have been Clomifene approved for the treatment of advanced human cancers, opening the way to anti-angiogenic therapy

in clinical oncology. However, the improved use of current approved drugs, or the development of novel ones, is limited by the lack of reliable surrogate markers that may allow a non-invasive and cost-effective monitoring of angiogenesis and identification of responding patients.Several studies performed using mouse models showed that bone marrow-derived (BMD) myeloid cells and several cell subpopulations, are important modulators of tumor angiogenesis. Once those cells are attracted at the tumor site by tumor-released factors, they promote angiogenesis, tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Moreover, it appears that the tumor could educate these cells before they enter the tumor microenvironment. Previous studies suggested the possibility that circulating BMD myeloid cells may be imprinted by tumor-derived signals even before they reached the tumor. If induced changes can be detected by non-invasive procedures, these cells, and associated molecular events, could be used to identify surrogate markers of tumor angiogenesis. Following the screening of different human and murine tumor models, we observed a myeloid cell population mobilized in mice bearing 4 T1-breast cancer cells-derived tumors.

Three RpoN-dependent genes were significantly up-regulated in the

Three RpoN-dependent genes were significantly up-regulated in the HP0256 mutant based on the microarray data and the qRT-PCR investigations, i.e. HP0115/flaB (encoding the minor flagellin FlaB), HP0870/flgE (encoding the hook protein FlgE) and HP1076 (encoding a hypothetical protein). Another RpoN-dependent gene HP1155/murG

(transferase, peptidoglycan synthesis) was 1.955 fold up-regulated with a p-value of 0.034. However, RpoN and its associated Ganetespib regulators FlgR, HP0244 and HP0958 were transcribed at wild-type levels. As shown in Table 2, HP0492/hpaA3 (flagellar sheath associated protein) was significantly down-regulated. This gene is known to be essential for flagellar biogenesis, but its transcriptional regulation remains unclear. SHP099 in vivo It has not yet been assigned to any flagellar gene class [8]. In the intermediate class, HP0367 (encoding a hypothetical protein) was 1.8 fold up-regulated with a p-value of 0.008. In class I genes, we did not observe significant changes. A slight down-regulation of genes encoding components of the secretion apparatus and the basal body, such as FliI, FliQ, FliB, FlgG, was noted without reaching the

fold-change cut-off for significance. The fliN gene encoding a component of the switch was up-regulated (1.758 fold) with a p-value of 0.042. Table 2 Differentially expressed flagellar genes in the HP0256 mutant. Proposed Class TIGR orf no. Putative gene product (gene) Expression ratio p-value Class I HP0019 chemotaxis protein (cheV) 1.221 0.026   HP0082 methyl-accepting Lepirudin chemotaxis transducer click here (tlpC) 0.945 0.378   HP0099 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (tlpA) 1.401** 0.112   HP0103 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (tlpB) 1.403** 0.05   HP0173 flagellar biosynthetic protein (fliR)

1.000 0.997   HP0244 signal-transducing protein, histidine kinase (atoS) 1.221 0.651   HP0246 flagellar basal-body P-ring protein (flgI) – -   HP0325 flagellar basal-body L-ring protein (flgH) 1.113 0.050   HP0326 CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase (neuA) 0.904 0.219   HP0327 flagellar protein G (flaG) 0.749 0.238   HP0351 basal body M-ring protein (fliF) 0.889 0.508   HP0352 flagellar motor switch protein (fliG) 1.158 0.176   HP0391 purine-binding chemotaxis protein (cheW) 1.668** 0.004   HP0392 histidine kinase (cheA) 1.202 0.113   HP0393 chemotaxis protein (cheV) 1.176 0.194   HP0584 flagellar motor switch protein (fliN) 1.758** 0.042   HP0599 hemolysin secretion protein precursor (hylB) 1.201 0.366   HP0616 chemotaxis protein (cheV) 1.159** 0.162   HP0684 flagellar biosynthesis protein (fliP) 0.510 0.058   HP0685 flagellar biosynthetic protein (fliP) 0.493 0.066   HP0703 response regulator 0.715 0.158   HP0714 RNA polymerase sigma-54 factor (rpoN) 1.104 0.699   HP0770 flagellar biosynthetic protein (flhB) 0.621 0.162   HP0815 flagellar motor rotation protein (motA) 0.917 0.538   HP0816 flagellar motor rotation protein (motB) 0.651 0.

Nat Rev Immunol 2009,9(5):313–23 PubMedCrossRef 7 Peterson DA, F

Nat Rev Immunol 2009,9(5):313–23.PubMedCrossRef 7. Peterson DA, Frank DN, Pace NR, Capmatinib Gordon JI: Metagenomic approaches for defining the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Cell Host Microbe 2008,3(6):417–27.PubMedCrossRef 8. Hattori M, Taylor TD: The human intestinal microbiome: a new frontier of human biology. DNA Res 2009,16(1):1–12.PubMedCrossRef 9. Eckburg PB, Bik EM, Bernstein CN, Purdom E, Dethlefsen L, Sargent

M, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Relman DA: Diversity of the human intestinal flora. Science 2005, 308:1635–1638.PubMedCrossRef XMU-MP-1 manufacturer 10. Andersson AF, Lindberg M, Jakobsson H, Backhed F, Nyrén P, Engstrand L: Comparative analysis of human gut microbiota by barcoded pyrosequencing. PloS ONE 2008, 3:e2836.PubMedCrossRef 11. Claesson MJ, O’Sullivan O, Wang Q, Nikkila J, Marchesi JR, Smidt H, de Vos WM, O’Toole PW: Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine. PLoS ONE 2009, 4:e6669.PubMedCrossRef 12. Turnbaugh C646 in vitro PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley RE, Sogin ML, Jones WJ, Roe BA, Affourtit JP, Egholm M, Henrissat B, Heath AC, Knight R, Gordon JI: A core gut microbiome in obese and

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Smoking status was categorized as current, past, or never, and li

Smoking status was categorized as current, past, or never, and life time smoking amount was computed selleck chemical as the unit of pack-year. Current alcohol consumption was calculated as drinks per week. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly Questionnaire [24] in all studies except the Namwon and Tobago Bone Health Studies. In the Tobago Bone Health Study, participants were asked about the frequency of walking outside. Because of the difference in questionnaires among studies, we used only one common variable, the frequency of walking outside home per week. This was classified as often (5–7 days/week)

and otherwise. In the Namwon Study, physical activity was measured by Baecke’s questionnaire. Korean men were asked two questions about the frequency of walking during leisure time or at work [25]. If a man answered at least one question as “often” or “always,” the frequency of walking outside per week was coded as “often.” Dietary calcium intake was calculated by the food frequency

questionnaires specific for each country: the modified versions of the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire in the MrOS Study [26], the MrOS Hong Kong Study [19], the Tobago Bone Health Study [27], and the food frequency questionnaire developed for the Korean Genome Epidemiologic Study [28] in the Namwon Study. Information on hormonal and surgical treatments for prostate cancer was identified. Wnt mutation All studies assessed self-reported health status with the same categories as

excellent, good, fair, poor, and very poor. The variable was classified as excellent/good and otherwise. Body weight was measured in indoor clothing or light gown without shoes using a calibrated Inbody 3.0 (Biospace Co. Korea) in the Namwon Study, a calibrated digital scale in one site (Portland) of the MrOS Study and calibrated balanced beam scales in the five sites of MrOS Study, the MrOS Hong Kong Study, and the Tobago Bone Health Study. Standing Phosphoglycerate kinase height was measured using a Selleckchem LCZ696 stadiometer in each study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight (kilograms) by square height (square meter). Statistical analysis Descriptive data for the major characteristics and BMD values are expressed as percentage or mean ± standard deviation (SD). BMD was compared across race/ethnic groups after adjustment with age only, with age, height, and weight using general linear model (GLM). In addition to these variables, we examined smoking amount, current alcohol consumption, walking, dietary calcium intake, and self-reported health as potential confounders. When these variables were added separately in the previous GLM including age, height, and weight, all variables were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with femoral neck BMD. Therefore, they were included as covariates in the full model.

The increase in particle dimension is ascribed to the longer reac

The increase in particle dimension is ascribed to the longer reaction time, which allows and promotes the crystal growth after nucleation in the hydrothermal process. Images of isolated nanocrystals at higher magnification

(HRTEM, Figure  1d) further confirm the DMXAA concentration crystallinity and phase purity of the as-synthesized cobalt ferrites. The well-defined two-dimensional lattice fringes of 10-nm nanocrystal indicate good crystallinity and lack of structural defects. The plane distance is measured as 2.99 Å, in good agreement with the (220) interplane spacing of the reported CoFe2O4 lattice. Figure 1 TEM image, EDX spectra, XRD pattern, and HRTEM of CoFe 2 O 4 nanocrystals. Low magnification TEM image (a) of CoFe2O4 nanocrystals synthesized via a solvothermal process and its corresponding EDX spectra (b). (c) XRD patterns of the CoFe2O4 nanocrystals reacted for 10 and 20 h. (d) High-resolution TEM image. Inset, corresponding its fast Fourier MRT67307 cell line transform indicating the particle is oriented along the zone axis [100]. Considering that the magnetic properties of the nanocrystal were to be compared that of the known bulk

behavior of CoFe2O4, unequivocal identification of the crystal phase, symmetry, and composition of an individual nanocrystal was highly desirable. To further verify the crystal structure, the samples were studied by high angle annular dark field (HAADF) STEM and compared with a calculated model. Figure  2a illustrates the projection of the atomic structure model of CoFe2O4 along the <110 > zone axis, with oxygen Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II atoms removed. Figure  2b shows the HAADF-STEM image of the as-synthesized nanocrystals, where the bright dots Go6983 supplier are Co and Fe atoms. The calculated positions of the transition metal atoms are superposed on the HAADF-STEM image, indicating that the elements and positions suggested in the model precisely fit those observed by STEM. As the intensity of the STEM pattern is proportional to Z 2[23], where Z is the atomic number, O atoms are not visible, while Co and Fe atoms are present. Since the atomic numbers of Co (Z

= 27) and Fe (Z = 26) are similar, it would be difficult to distinguish one from the other in the HAADF-STEM image. However, some Co columns exhibit stronger contrast than other Co/Fe columns in Figure  2b. This is because the former Co columns have twice the number of Co atoms as the dimmer ones. In addition, the measured interplane distance of (111) planes (4.80 Å) is consistent with the reported CoFe2O4 crystal information. Figure 2 Projection of the inverse spinel structure and the HAADF-STEM image of CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. (a) Projection of the inverse spinel structure of CoFe2O4 along the <110> zone axis. Red balls represent iron atoms; green balls represent cobalt atoms; oxygen atoms have been removed for clarity. (b) Atomic resolution HAADF-STEM image of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Bright balls correspond to cobalt and ferrite atoms.

Studies examining the effects of calcium intake and level of phys

Studies examining the effects of C646 calcium intake and level of physical activity in free living conditions on bone mineralization are also limited, particularly in

young men. In addition, intake of dairy products, which are the main source of calcium [26], may be associated with a dietary fat intake [6] and adversely affect blood lipids [24] or blood pressure. Only one study with girls examining effect of calcium and bone mineralization has investigated the effects of calcium intake on blood lipids. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dietary factors, physical activity and bone mineralization in young men. Blood lipids were also assessed in the P505-15 current study. Methods Thirty-five healthy men aged 18–25 y, recruited from the local community in the city of Brisbane, Australia volunteered for the study. Participants were recruited by flyers posted in shopping centers and education centers as NVP-BSK805 research buy well advertisement in local newspapers. Inclusion criteria to participate in

the study were age between 18 and 25 years and absence of any chronic disease. Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee approved the participant recruitment and data collection procedures. The methods of this cross-sectional study have been previously described in detail [27] and are here described in brief. Anthropometric measures including body weight and height, body composition, and waist and hip circumferences were undertaken. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m2). Body composition, including BMC, BMD and lean body mass, was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (DPX-Plus; Lunar Corp, Madison, WI). Resting metabolic MYO10 rate (RMR) was assessed by continuous open-circuit indirect calorimetry using a Deltatrac II metabolic cart (Datex-Ohmeda Corp., Helsinki, Finland http://​www.​hospitalnetwork.​com/​doc/​Deltatrac-II-Metabolic-Monitor-0001)

in half of the participants. Due to technical problems, the MOXUS O2 system (AEI Technologies, Pennsylvania, USA) was used to assess RMR of the remaining participants. In our laboratories we have consistently found measured RMR values are less than 100 kcal lower using the Deltatrac compared to MOXUS system. A similar proportion of lean and overweight participants were assessed using each of the methods and therefore likelihood of measurement bias was reduced. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was assessed after a 10-min rest using a standard sphygmomanometer. Following an overnight fast of at least 8 h, a blood sample was collected for later total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) determination using reagents from Roche Diagnostics (Indianapolis, IN).

The turbulence in the core of the plasma results due to the inter

The turbulence in the core of the plasma results due to the interactions between the highly energized plasma species due to incoming laser pulse absorption and nitrogen gas molecules. Due to the more turbulent interactions and excessive plasma material during 13-MHz repetition rate machining, the plasma species expand wider, and thus, the redeposition back to the target surface occurs over a larger surface area resulting in the formation of a much larger number of randomly oriented leaf-like nanotips,

as seen in Figure 6c. When the ablation is performed at the 8-MHz repetition rate, the plasma must have ideal condition in terms of the amount of the RG-7388 mouse turbulence and available ablated material resulting in the growth of highly populated and oriented narrower nanotips compared to 13 MHz, as seen in Figure 6b. For a low number of pulses, the plasma expansion and interaction with surrounding nitrogen gas is less turbulent. The plasma has more time to relax before the next pulse arrives. Thus, the plasma does Selleck MK5108 not expand outward as much resulting in the

plasma species being closer. This Givinostat order resulted in the formation of larger droplets of vapor content which get deposited over the target surface area. As a consequence, only a few nanotips are found to be growing randomly from large droplets for the 4-MHz repetition rate, as seen from Figure 6a. Figure 6 Effect of laser pulse repetition rate on plasma expansion and nanotip growth. Nanotips generated for the average laser power of 16 W for pulse repetition rates of (a) 4, (b) 8, and (c) PAK6 13 MHz; the dwell time was 0.5 ms. Effect of dwell time The dwell time study was performed for 214-fs pulse width and various repetition rates. Figure 7 shows the SEM images of the glass target machined at dwell times of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ms for the 8-MHz repetition rate. The growth steps of the nanotips are clearly evident from these three images. As a result, it is obvious from Figure 7 that the growth of these nanostructures is dependent on the dwell time as much as on other laser parameters. For

example, at 0.1 ms, the plasma has very little vapor content resulting in the redeposition of the droplets on the target surface and the growth of stem for the nanotips, as seen in Figure 7a. Once the stem growth has started, the continuous redeposition of vapor condensates from plasma back to the surface provides the building material for tips to grow. At 0.25-ms dwell time, the plasma has just enough building material for the tips to start growing in a nanoscale to a micrometer length; the number of tips present on surface also increased. When the dwell time is further increased to 0.50 ms, the nanoscale tips grew to the length of 1 to 2 μm as well as their population increased on the target surface. Figure 7 Nanotip growth under different femtosecond laser irradiation dwell times.

To evaluate the biomechanical changes in rat trochanteric region

To evaluate the biomechanical changes in rat trochanteric region after drug treatment, it was necessary first to produce a trochanteric fracture. Materials and methods Development of a new breaking test for the trochanteric region of

the rat femur A novel mechanical loading configuration was developed to measure the strength of the trochanteric region of the femur, according to the design of one of the authors (K.M. Stuermer). The left and right femurs of non-OVX rats were tested in a direction vertical to the greater trochanter. Temsirolimus cell line The mTOR inhibitor review femoral head was fixed in a 4 mm deepening at one end of the system, while the femoral shaft was horizontally positioned between two metallic movable rolling cylinders. The distal end of the femur was in contact with the aluminum plate without any rigidity. The lesser trochanter did not come into contact with the aluminum plate at all because of a groove made to allow for free movement. The angle between the femoral shaft and the horizontal line was nearly 0°. Force was applied vertically to the greater trochanter using a roller stamp (Fig. 1a–c). Fig. 1 a–c The new breaking test Selleckchem MM-102 is designed to produce trochanteric fractures for studying of biomechanical strength of trochanteric region of rat femur (here femur of Sprague–Dawley

rat). The femoral head was fixed in a 4-mm deepening on the other end of the system. The femoral shaft was horizontal between two metallic movable rolling cylinders. The distal end of the femur was in contact with the aluminum plate without any rigidity. The force was applied with a ZWICK-testing machine, type 145660 Z020/TND (Zwick/Roell, Ulm, Germany) The

force was applied with a ZWICK-testing machine, type 145660 Z020/TND (Zwick/Roell, Ulm, Germany). The measurement range was from 2 to 400 N, at a relative accuracy of 0.2% at 0.4% nominal force (FN). During the bending and breaking test, the femur was allowed to move longitudinally as it was dynamically fixed between the two roller clamps. The stamp was driven down to the greater trochanter until the bone was broken. Thalidomide Displacement and load were recorded, and ultimate strength (maximal load, N), stiffness (slope of the linear part of the curve, representing elastic deformation, N/mm), and the yield load were calculated. Fifteen pairs of right–left femurs of non-OVX rats were studied with this new breaking test before starting the comparative bioassay. Each bone and its contralateral partner underwent the breaking test on the same day, and the test order of bones was random. All bones were analyzed by the same operator. Comparative bioassay Experimental animals and substances The experiments were carried out using 44 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley rats fed with a standard diet ad libitum.