Smoking status was categorized as current, past, or never, and life time smoking amount was computed selleck chemical as the unit of pack-year. Current alcohol consumption was calculated as drinks per week. Physical activity was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly Questionnaire  in all studies except the Namwon and Tobago Bone Health Studies. In the Tobago Bone Health Study, participants were asked about the frequency of walking outside. Because of the difference in questionnaires among studies, we used only one common variable, the frequency of walking outside home per week. This was classified as often (5–7 days/week)
and otherwise. In the Namwon Study, physical activity was measured by Baecke’s questionnaire. Korean men were asked two questions about the frequency of walking during leisure time or at work . If a man answered at least one question as “often” or “always,” the frequency of walking outside per week was coded as “often.” Dietary calcium intake was calculated by the food frequency
questionnaires specific for each country: the modified versions of the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire in the MrOS Study , the MrOS Hong Kong Study , the Tobago Bone Health Study , and the food frequency questionnaire developed for the Korean Genome Epidemiologic Study  in the Namwon Study. Information on hormonal and surgical treatments for prostate cancer was identified. Wnt mutation All studies assessed self-reported health status with the same categories as
excellent, good, fair, poor, and very poor. The variable was classified as excellent/good and otherwise. Body weight was measured in indoor clothing or light gown without shoes using a calibrated Inbody 3.0 (Biospace Co. Korea) in the Namwon Study, a calibrated digital scale in one site (Portland) of the MrOS Study and calibrated balanced beam scales in the five sites of MrOS Study, the MrOS Hong Kong Study, and the Tobago Bone Health Study. Standing Phosphoglycerate kinase height was measured using a Selleckchem LCZ696 stadiometer in each study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight (kilograms) by square height (square meter). Statistical analysis Descriptive data for the major characteristics and BMD values are expressed as percentage or mean ± standard deviation (SD). BMD was compared across race/ethnic groups after adjustment with age only, with age, height, and weight using general linear model (GLM). In addition to these variables, we examined smoking amount, current alcohol consumption, walking, dietary calcium intake, and self-reported health as potential confounders. When these variables were added separately in the previous GLM including age, height, and weight, all variables were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with femoral neck BMD. Therefore, they were included as covariates in the full model.