The dataset included socio-demographic, health status, and health

The dataset included socio-demographic, health status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) information. HRQOL was assessed with the modified City of

Hope Quality of Life (mCOH-QOL)-Ostomy questionnaire and SF-36v2. To assess the relationship between income and PWB, a hierarchical linear regression model was constructed Ulixertinib combining data from both cases and controls.

After accounting for the proportion of variance in PWB explained by the other independent variables in the model, the additional variance explained by income was significant (R (2) increased from 0.228 to 0.250; P = 0.006).

Although the study design does not allow causal inference, these results demonstrate a significant relationship between income and PWB in CRC survivors. The findings suggest that for non-randomized group comparisons of HRQOL, income Liproxstatin-1 manufacturer should, at the very least, be included as a control variable in the analysis.”
“Aim: To investigate the effects of azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine (AZA/6-MP) on birth outcomes in women with inflammatory bowel disease

(IBD).

Methods: Details of pregnant women with IBD were obtained through an ObstetriX Database in 3 major teaching hospitals in Sydney from 1996 to 2006. Medical records were reviewed. Birth outcomes of interest were single live births, low birth weight (LBW) at term (<2500 g), preterm births (<37 weeks gestation), neonatal adverse outcomes, and congenital anomaly. Placental blood flow during third trimester of pregnancy was measured using arterial Doppler ultrasonography, where available.

Results: All women had IBD diagnosed before pregnancy. 19 births were exposed to AZA/6-MP. BIX 01294 ic50 74 births that were never exposed to AZA/6-MP were selected as controls. Preterm birth was seen in 26.3% of the exposed group as compared to 13.5% of controls

(p<0.001). However, in univariate analysis, preterm birth was not associated with AZA/6-MP (OR=2.28; Cl: 0.67-7.73). There was 1 neonatal adverse outcome in the exposed group as compared to 4 in controls (5.3% vs 5.4%, p=0.97). One congenital anomaly was seen in each group (p = 0.27). No LBW at term was seen in either group. Placental blood flow in 4 women exposed to AZA/6-MP was normal.

Conclusion: The use of AZA/6-MP during pregnancy in IBD women was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, LBW at term, neonatal adverse outcomes and congenital anomalies. (C) 2011 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study evaluated the performance of the pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE) score for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and prognosis after pediatric cardiac surgery. It was a single-center prospective observational study developed in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (pCICU) of a tertiary children’s hospital.

After reperfusion, IL-6 and IL-8 increased additional 60- and 120

After reperfusion, IL-6 and IL-8 increased additional 60- and 120-fold (p < 0.05), while already elevated CD25-levels remained stable. NVP-BSK805 order Furthermore, transcripts encoding MCP-1, E-selectin, and TNF alpha were also induced significantly upon reperfusion (p < 0.0005). Systemic treatment of the recipient with YSPSL pre-reperfusion, with or without pre-implantation YSPSL flush of the donor organ, attenuated the post-reperfusion increase in MCP-1 and TGF beta (p < 0.05), E-selectin and hemoxygenase 1 transcripts (p < 0.1).

Conclusions: Our data in humans demonstrate a robust increase in inflammatory gene transcript levels during kidney transplantation IRI and reduction thereof

by inhibition of leukocyte adhesion.”
“Recently, Nocodazole the energy crisis and

the continued growth in electrical power generation strongly demand minimization of wasteful energy dissipation. Magnetic core loss (W) is the main source of energy dissipation in motors and transformers. This requires the development of soft magnetic materials with low coercivity (H-c) and high magnetic flux density (B). Fe-rich Fe85-86Si1-2B8P4Cu1 (at. %) alloy ribbons made from industrial raw materials (containing some impurities) with 6 mm in width have a heteroamorphous structure containing a large number of extremely small Fe grains (less than 3 nm), resulting from the unique effects of P and Cu addition in proper amounts. Crystallization of these alloys by annealing shows a uniform precipitation of alpha-Fe, leading to a uniform nanocrystallized structure of alpha-Fe grains, 16-19 nm in size, accompanied by an intergranular amorphous layer about 1 nm in width. The wide ribbons exhibit high B of 1.82-1.85 T (at 800 A/m), almost comparable to commercial oriented Fe-3 mass% Si alloys. Excellent magnetic softness (low H-c of 2.6-5.8 A/m, high permeability of 2.4-2.7 x 10(4) at 1 kHz and small saturation magnetostriction of 2.3-2.4 x 10(-6)) along with high electrical resistivity (0.67-0.74 mu Omega m) of these alloys result in superior frequency characteristics of core losses and a much lower W at 50 Hz up to the maximum

induction of 1.75 T, in comparison to the silicon steels now in practical use for power applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3535169]“
“Shrinking lungs syndrome (SLS) is VX-661 a rare entity associated with autoimmune diseases and its underlying pathogenesis is still unclear. We describe a series of seven consecutive cases of SLS in systemic lupus erythematosus, all of them with serositis and six (85.7%) with anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that SLS may be, in some cases, a consequence of diaphragmatic restriction due to pleuritic pain, and we suggest anti-Ro/SSA as a marker of this subgroup of SLS.”
“Background: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) results in liver cirrhosis. Therefore, some PFIC patients require liver transplantation (LT).


“Purpose: To assess cardiac morphologic and functional ada


“Purpose: To assess cardiac morphologic and functional adaptations in elite triathletes with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to compare findings to those in recreationally active control subjects.

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study, and written informed consent was

obtained from all subjects. Twenty-six male triathletes (mean age +/- standard deviation, 27.9 years +/- 3.5; CDK inhibitor review age range, 18-35 years) and 27 nonathletic male control subjects (mean age, 27.3 years +/- 3.7; age range, 20-34 years) underwent cardiac MR imaging. Electrocardiographically gated steady-state free-precession cine MR imaging was used to measure indexed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, ejection fraction (EF), and cardiac index at rest. The ventricular remodeling index, which is indicative of the pattern of cardiac hypertrophy, was calculated. The maximum left atrial (LA) volume was calculated according to the biplane area-length method. Differences ABT-737 ic50 between means of athletes and control subjects were assessed by

using the Student t test for independent samples.

Results: The atrial and ventricular volume and mass indexes in triathletes were significantly greater than those in control subjects (P<.001). In 25 of the 26 athletes, the LV and RV end-diastolic volumes were greater than the normal ranges reported in the literature for healthy, male, nonathletic control subjects (47-92 mL/m(2) and 55-105 mL/m(2), respectively). There was a strong positive correlation between end-diastolic selleck inhibitor volume and myocardial mass (P<.01). The mean LV and RV remodeling indexes of the athletes (0.73 g/mL +/- 0.1 and 0.22 g/mL +/- 0.01, respectively) were similar to those of the control subjects

(0.71 g/mL +/- 0.1 [P=.290] and 0.22 g/mL +/- 0.01 [P=.614], respectively). There was a negative correlation between LA end-systolic volume and heart rate (P<.01).

Conclusion: Changes in cardiac morphologic characteristics and function in elite triathletes, as measured with cardiac MR imaging, reflect a combination of eccentric and concentric remodeling with regulative enlargement of atrial and ventricular chambers. These findings are different from what has been observed in previous studies in other types of elite athletes. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“The relationships between the Expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMSE) and genotype and motor and respiratory outcomes were examined in patients with spinal muscular atrophy types II and III (n = 70). The correlation between the HFMSE and Gross Motor Function Measure was r = 0.98. Correlations between HFMSE and forced vital capacity (percentage of predicted normal) (n = 56) and a functional rating (n = 57) were r = 0.87 and r = 0.92, respectively. Correlations with strength were as follows: knee extension, r = 0.

The transcriptional network through which BES1 and BZR regulate l

The transcriptional network through which BES1 and BZR regulate large number of target genes is mostly unknown. By combining chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with Arabidopsis tiling arrays (ChIP-chip) and gene expression studies, we have identified 1609 putative BES1 target genes, 404 of which are regulated by BRs and/or in gain-of-function bes1-D mutant. BES1 targets contribute to BR responses

and interactions with other hormonal or light signaling pathways. BAY 73-4506 purchase Computational modeling of gene expression data using Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) reveals that BES1-targeted transcriptional factors form a gene regulatory network (GRN). Mutants of many genes in the network displayed defects in BR responses. Moreover, we found that BES1 functions to inhibit chloroplast development by repressing the expression of GLK1 and GLK2 transcription

factors, confirming a hypothesis generated from the GRN. Our results thus provide a global view of BR regulated gene expression and a GRN that guides future studies in understanding BR-regulated plant growth.”
“Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is one of the most common hemorrhagic disorders in childhood. Platelet microparticles (PMPs) arise with platelet activation with procoagulant activity. Elevated PMP levels in adult ITP were reported to be thrombogenic in certain settings. However, their clinical significance in pediatric ITP was not studied. The aims of this study were to assess PMP levels in ITP in children and adolescents, selleck chemicals llc FGFR inhibitor and its correlation with clinical status and bleeding score. The study included 40 ITP patients (20 acute aged 9 +/- 2.19 years and 20 chronic aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years) randomly selected from the Hematology Clinic, Children’s Hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls aged 9 +/- 3.28 years. Patients were subjected to detailed history, assessment of bleeding score,

complete hemogram, cytological bone marrow examination, and PMP quantification in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Acute ITP patients had significant increase in PMPs, PMP/platelet count, and PMP percent compared to controls (P = .002, P < .0001, P < .0001, respectively) and compared to chronic ITP patients (P < .0001, P < .0001, P < .0001, respectively). PMPs were significantly decreased in chronic ITP patients compared to controls (P = .001), but PMP/platelet and PMP percent showed highly significant increase in chronic ITP (P < .0001). No correlation was evident between PMP levels and platelet count in either group (P > .05). Neither higher bleeding score nor thrombotic manifestations were observed in the studied ITP patients with high PMP levels. Elevated PMP levels may be protective against severe bleeding events in pediatric ITP. The role of PMP studies in deciding the management plan of childhood and adolescent ITP needs further evaluation.</.

Results: The 5S rDNA gene was located in one or two chromosome pa

Results: The 5S rDNA gene was located in one or two chromosome pairs, depending on the species, and was found in a basal distribution pattern. Its chromosomal location was highly conserved among these species. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ipi-145-ink1197.html The 18S rDNA was located in a single medium-sized chromosomal pair in all species analyzed. Its chromosomal location was near the centromere in the proximal or pericentromeric regions. The location of the H3 histone gene was highly conserved, with slight chromosomal

location differences among some species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a megameric chromosome carrying both the chromosomal markers 18S rDNA and the H3 histone genes, thereby expanding our understanding of such chromosomes.

Conclusions: The 5S and 18S rDNA genes and the H3

histone genes showed a conservative pattern in the species that we analyzed. A basal distribution pattern for 5S rDNA was observed with a location on the fourth chromosomal pair, and it was identified as the possible ancestral bearer. The 18S rDNA and H3 histone genes were restricted to a single pair of chromosomes, representing an ancestral pattern. Our results reinforce the known taxonomic BKM120 manufacturer relationships between Chromacris and Xestotrachelus, which are two close genera.”
“People typically choose pleasure over pain. But how do they know which of these their choices will entail? The brain generates mental simulations (previews) of future events, which produce affective reactions (premotions), which are then used as a basis for forecasts (predictions) about the future event’s emotional consequences. Research shows that this process leads to systematic errors of prediction. We review evidence indicating that these errors can be traced to five sources.”
“We present an electron holography experiment enabling the local and quantitative study of magnetic properties in magnetic tunnel junction. The junction was fully characterized during the switching process and each possible magnetic configuration was highlighted with magnetic induction maps. No magnetic coupling was found between the two layers. We plot a local hysteresis loop

that was compared with magnetometry measurement at the macroscopic scale confirming the validity of the local method. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3358219]“
“The Belgian experience with donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT) was retrospectively selleck kinase inhibitor reviewed, particularly evaluating patient and graft survivals, and biliary complications. From 2003 to 2007, 58 DCD-LT were performed in Belgium. Mean procurement total warm ischemia time was 25 +/- 2 min (mean +/- SEM). Mean cold ischemia time was 451 +/- 18 min. Mean follow-up was 23 +/- 2.2 months. Post-transplant peak aspartate aminotransminases was 2241 +/- 338 UI/l. Patient survivals at 1 month, 1 and 3 years, were 91.3%, 83.3% and 66.9% respectively. Graft survivals at 1 month, 1 and 3 years, were 84.4%, 72.4% and 48.8% respectively. Two patients (3.

Dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests showed that the mod

Dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests showed that the modulus and elongation at break values improved at low (1% and 3%) POSS loading levels. Scanning

electron microscopy observation indicated that POSS particles were well dispersed in both PLA and plasticized PLA. The interfacial interaction of POSS with the polymer matrix was found to be better in the presence of plasticizer. The presence of POSS also affected the thermal properties of the PLA and plasticized PLA. HDAC inhibitor It was revealed from DSC that POSS particles acted as a nucleating agent for PLA. Moreover, the percent crystallinity was found to be higher in the presence of POSS for both PLA and plasticized PLA. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 1067-1075, 2011″
“TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) regulates the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and IRF7 activation pathways by double strand RNA (dsRNA) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4. Rebamipide is useful for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although IBD is associated with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), any association with the TBK1-IRF pathway remains unknown. How rebamipide affects the TBK1-IRF pathway

is also unclear. We analyzed the relationship between IBD (particularly Nepicastat price ulcerative colitis; UC) and the TLR-TBK1-IRF3/7 pathway using human colon tissue, a murine model of colitis and human colonic epithelial cells. Inflamed colonic mucosa over-expressed TKB1, NAP1, IRF3, and IRF7 mRNA compared with normal mucosa. TBK1 was mainly expressed in inflammatory epithelial cells of UC patients. The expression of TBK1, IRF3, IRF7, IFN-alpha and IFN-beta mRNA was suppressed in mice given oral dextran sulfate-sodium (DSS) and daily rectal rebamipide compared with mice given only DSS. Rebamipide reduced the expression of TBK1, IRF3 and IRF7

mRNA induced by LPS/dsRNA, but not of NF-kappa B mRNA in colonic epithelial cells. Rebamipide might suppress the TLR-TBK1 pathway, resulting in IRF3/7-induction of IFN-alpha/beta and inflammatory factors. TBK1 is important in the induction of inflammation in patients with UC. If rebamipide represses the TLR-TBK1 pathway, then rectal administration selleck chemicals should suppress inflammation of the colonic mucosa in patients with UC.”
“Chronic daily headache (CDH) is one of the more frequently observed headache syndromes at major tertiary care centers. CDH is defined as headache occurring > 15 days/month. Different mechanisms are involved in the development of CDH but what factors specifically contributing to the transformation from episodic into CDH remain largely unknown. Analgesic overuse is commonly identified as the most important factor for such transformation. Hypertension, allergy, asthma, arthritis, diabetes, obesity and hypothyroidism were associated with CDH in clinical series. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors of chronicity in patients with headache.

In this prospective multicenter pediatric encephalitis study cond

In this prospective multicenter pediatric encephalitis study conducted in Greece for 3 years, 42 cases were diagnosed and the presumptively or definitely causative pathogen was identified in 24 (57.1%). Leading pathogens included herpes

viruses (10 patients), enteroviruses (6), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (2). No fatalities were observed; however, deficits remained in 5 of 42 (11.9%) children.”
“The degradation and prestabilization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were investigated with differential BMN 673 concentration scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The initial temperature, initial loss-weight temperatures, and loss-weight were significantly lowered when ammonium itaconate (AIA) was used as comonomer. One exothermal peak of PAN (homopolymer) was shown in the DSC curves, while there were four exothermal peaks of poly(AN-AIA). FTIR spectra results confirm the degradation process of NH(4)(+)

groups. During the heating process, NH(4)(+) groups (3030 cm(-1)) were changed into NH(3)(+) (2955 cm(-1)) and then NH(2)(+) groups (2920 Navitoclax molecular weight cm(-1)). The dissociated H(+) could initiate the cyclization reactions of C equivalent to N companied with heat released. The effect of ammonia on degradation and prestabilization of PAN was also studied. It was found that ammonia could accelerate prestabilization of acrylic precursors. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 1596-1600, 2010″
“Background: Spinal deformities are common in patients with

osteogenesis buy HM781-36B imperfecta, a heritable disorder that causes bone fragility. The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior of spinal curvature during growth in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and establish its relationship to disease severity and medical treatment with bisphosphonates.

Methods: The medical records and radiographs of 316 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were retrospectively reviewed. The severity of osteogenesis imperfecta Was classified with the modified Sillence classification. Serial curve measurements were recorded throughout the follow-up period for each patient with scoliosis. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of disease severity (Sillence type), patient age, and bisphosphonate treatment on the progression of scoliosis as measured with the Cobb method.

Results: Of the 316 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, 157 had associated scoliosis, a prevalence of 50%. Scoliosis prevalence (68%) and mean progression rate (6 degrees per year) were the highest in the group of patients with the most severe osteogenesis imperfecta (modified Sillence type III). A group with intermediate osteogenesis imperfecta severity, modified Sillence type IV, demonstrated intermediate scoliosis values (54%, 4 degrees per year).

Measured delivery profiles were comparable to prediction models

Measured delivery profiles were comparable to prediction models. Conclusions: We confirmed the hypothesis that delivery of one infused drug is transiently affected by starting or stopping a second drug infusion in the same line. The magnitude of the changes can be estimated quantitatively. The clinical impact depends

on the drugs being co-infused and patient sensitivity, but could be clinically important; the findings have safety implications for infused medication delivery 17DMAG price to critically ill or anesthetized children. We recommend minimizing infusion system dead volumes, connecting the most essential infusion(s) to the main fluid pathway as close as possible to the patient, and recognizing the potential for unintended alterations in delivery when multiple drugs co-infuse.”
“Autophagy is Selleckchem Mizoribine a catabolic membrane-trafficking process that leads to sequestration and degradation of intracellular material within lysosomes. It is executed at basal levels in every cell and promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating organelle and protein turnover. In response to various forms of cellular stress, however, the levels and cargoes of autophagy can be modulated. In nutrient-deprived states, for example, autophagy can be activated to degrade cargoes for cell-autonomous

energy production to promote cell survival. In other contexts, in contrast, autophagy has been shown to contribute to cell death. Given these dual effects in regulating cell viability, it is no surprise that autophagy has implications in both the genesis and treatment of malignant disease. In this review, we provide a comprehensive appraisal of the way in which oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes regulate autophagy. In addition, we address the current evidence from human cancer and animal models this website that has aided our understanding of the role of autophagy in tumour progression. Finally, the potential for targeting autophagy therapeutically is discussed in light of the functions of autophagy at different stages of tumour progression and in normal tissues.”
“Aim: We performed a retrospective audit of intravenous morphine infusion administered

to children in an effort to characterize the relationship between dose and age. Methods: A retrospective audit of morphine infusions was reviewed for a 24-months period and included all children who received continuous intravenous nurse-controlled morphine infusions and patient-controlled analgesia; a population undergoing acute and elective surgical procedures, as well as medical and oncological treatments. The relationship between age and infusion rate was investigated using nonlinear mixed effects models. Results: There were 886 children whose data were acceptable for review. Morphine dose increased with age from 9.97 (CV 28%) mu g center dot kg-1 per h in neonates. The Hill equation with an exponential of 1.5 best described these changes. Morphine rate reached 90% of its mean final rate of 22.

More specifically, we examined the potential interaction of COMT

More specifically, we examined the potential interaction of COMT genotype and PTSD diagnosis on fear-potentiated startle during fear conditioning and extinction and COMT DNA methylation levels (as determined using genomic DNA isolated from whole blood). Participants were recruited from medical and gynecological Fer-1 mouse clinics of an urban hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA. We found that individuals with the Met/Met genotype demonstrated higher fear-potentiated startle to the CS-(safety signal) and during extinction of the CS+ (danger signal) compared to Val/Met and Val/Val genotypes. The PTSD+ Met/Met genotype group had the greatest

impairment in fear inhibition to the CS- (p = 0.006), compared to Val carriers. In addition, the Met/Met genotype was associated with DNA methylation at four CpG sites, two of which were associated with impaired fear inhibition to the safety signal. These results suggest that multiple differential mechanisms for regulating COMT function – at the level of protein structure via the Val158 Met genotype and at the level of gene regulation via differential methylation – are associated with impaired fear inhibition in PTSD.”
“Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Stachys lavandulifolia

afforded a new phenylethanoid glycoside, 4,3`,4`-trimethoxy-lavandulifolioside A, named lavandulifolioside B, together with three other known phenylethanoid

glycosides, lavandulifolioside selleck A, verbascoside and leucosceptoside A, and an iridoid glycoside 5-O-beta-allopyranosyloxy-aucubin PCI-34051 (5-O-beta-allopyranosyl-monomelittoside). While the structures of the known compounds, except the iridoid glycoside, were established by direct comparison of their spectroscopic data with respective literature data, lavandulifolioside B and 5-O-beta-allopyranosyloxy-aucubin were identified comprehensively by extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The distribution of the isolated compounds within the genus Stachys has been discussed.”
“Background: The role of the clinical nurse/midwife specialist and advanced nurse/midwife practitioner is complex not least because of the diversity in how the roles are operationalised across health settings and within multidisciplinary teams.

This aim of this paper is to use The SCAPE Study: Specialist Clinical and Advanced Practitioner Evaluation in Ireland to illustrate how case study was used to strengthen a Sequential Explanatory Design.

Methods: In Phase 1, clinicians identified indicators of specialist and advanced practice which were then used to guide the instrumental case study design which formed the second phase of the larger study. Phase 2 used matched case studies to evaluate the effectiveness of specialist and advanced practitioners on clinical outcomes for service users.

White men had significantly higher SAT than did African American

White men had significantly higher SAT than did African American men, but after adjustment for covariates, their SAT was lower than that of African American men.

Conclusions: Abdominal visceral adiposity is significantly greater in white men and women. After adjustment

for covariates, white men and women had significantly lower SAT than did African American men and women. The results of this study highlight the heterogeneity of human body fat distribution across racial groups. This trial was Buparlisib registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00959270. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 7-15.”
“Bacillus anthracis generates virulence factors such as lethal and edema toxins, capsule, and hemolytic proteins under conditions of reduced oxygenation. Here, we report on the acute cytotoxicity of culture supernatants (Sups) of six nonencapsulated B. anthracis strains grown till the stationary phase under static microaerobic conditions. Human small airway epithelial, umbilical Stem Cell Compound Library vein endothelial, Caco-2, and Hep-G2 cells

were found to be susceptible. Sups displayed a reduction of pH to 5.3-5.5, indicating the onset of acid anaerobic fermentation; however, low pH itself was not a major factor of toxicity. The pore-forming hemolysin, anthrolysin O (ALO), contributed to the toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Its effect was found to be synergistic with a metabolic product of B. anthracis, succinic acid. Cells exposed to Sups demonstrated cytoplasmic membrane blebbing, increased permeability, loss of ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and arrest of cell respiration. The toxicity was reduced by inhibition of ALO by cholesterol, decomposition of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Cell death appears to be caused by an acute primary membrane permeabilization by ALO, followed by a burst of reactive radicals from the mitochondria fuelled by the succinate, which is generated

by bacteria in the hypoxic environment. This mechanism of metabolic toxicity is relevant to the late-stage conditions of hypoxia and acidosis found in anthrax patients and might operate at anatomical locations of the host deprived from oxygen supply.”
“Using In2O3 as a host matrix, extensive calculations based on density functional click here theory have been carried out to understand the electronic and magnetic properties of native defects, alkali and alkaline-earth metal substitutions as disputed in recent theoretical and experimental studies. Our calculations show that the magnetism in undoped In2O3 is originated from In vacancies (V-In) instead of O vacancies. The ferromagnetic (FM) coupling between the moments introduced by V-In is found strong enough to achieve room temperature ferromagnetism. Moreover, FM coupling is also strongly favored in alkali metal doping cases with negative formation energy.