Spine J 11:737–44PubMedCrossRef 64 Drummond M, Barbieri M, Cook

Spine J 11:737–44PubMedCrossRef 64. Drummond M, Barbieri M, Cook J et al (2009) Transferability of economic evaluations across jurisdictions: ISPOR good research practices task force report. Value Health 12:409–18PubMedCrossRef”
“Introduction Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BP) are prescribed for the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, multiple myeloma, cancer metastases, and Paget’s disease. However, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) has been reported as a rare complication. BRONJ occurs at a much higher rate in patients Ro 61-8048 molecular weight receiving intravenous N-BPs for cancer treatment

versus oral N-BPs. The incidence of BRONJ in patients treated for osteoporosis is low at 0.1 %, but the incidence of BRONJ in cancer patients treated with high doses of intravenous N-BP is higher at 3 to 10 % [1]. Currently, conservative treatment is recommended for BRONJ, in accordance with the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) Position Paper [2]. Recently, however, it has been reported that daily parathyroid hormone treatment is effective for BRONJ. Weekly teriparatide (TPTD; human parathyroid hormone peptide 1–34) injections have been used to treat osteoporosis in Japan [3], but there are no reports describing the effectiveness

of weekly TPTD injections for the treatment of BRONJ. Management of BRONJ is challenging and controversial, and there is currently no established drug treatment PSI-7977 nmr for this condition. We report two patients with stage 3 BRONJ. One patient was successfully treated with weekly PTD injections, and the other with daily TPTD injections. Changes in the levels of serum N-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-NTX) and serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) were selleck products studied. Case reports Case 1 An either 87-year-old Japanese woman with a 4-year history of alendronate therapy

(35 mg/week orally) was referred for the treatment of multiple fistulas with purulent discharge over the left maxillary ridge. She was diagnosed with stage 3 BRONJ according to the AAOMS guidelines (2009). She initially received conservative treatment, including instruction on oral hygiene, administration of antibiotics, antimicrobial mouth gargles, and local irrigation. N-BP therapy was discontinued at the time of her first visit. Three months later, she underwent sequestrectomy and extraction of the maxillary left first and second molars because of high tooth mobility (Fig. 1a, d, g). We continued conservative therapy and debridement for 1 year. However, her disease was persistent and progressive (Fig. 1b, e, h). She was then treated with TPTD by subcutaneous injection (56.5 μg weekly). After 3 months of TPTD treatment, there was complete coverage of the necrotic tissue and exposed bone with normal mucosa. Computed tomography showed that her maxillary sinusitis attributed to stage 3 BRONJ had resolved (Fig. 1c, f, i).

majuscula [3] More recently, compound isolation and structure el

majuscula [3]. More recently, compound isolation and structure elucidation from L. majuscula has been complemented with the characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters that encode a number of these compounds. The gene clusters for several potent anticancer and neurotoxic agents such as curacin A, barbamide, and the jamaicamides have provided new insight into the biosynthetic strategies and logic used by this organism for

compound production, as well as unique enzymes involved in unprecedented molecular tailoring reactions [4–7]. Despite considerable interest in pursuing cyanobacterial lead compounds as potential drug candidates, an adequate supply of these compounds for clinical research is often impossible to obtain without Sapanisertib clinical trial impractically large scale field collections or sophisticated and expensive synthetic methods [8, 9]. With some notable examples [10–13] it has been difficult to induce microbial gene clusters to produce their natural products in heterologous FGFR inhibitor hosts, and thus this technology is not Alvocidib manufacturer currently predictable [14]. Equally problematic, filamentous marine cyanobacteria such as Lyngbya grow slowly in laboratory culture, with doubling times in some cases of about 18 days [15]. One avenue for increasing compound production from marine cyanobacteria could be to take advantage of regulatory

elements associated with a biosynthetic gene cluster of interest. Although genetic

controls of several primary metabolic functions in cyanobacteria including circadian rhythms [16], heterocyst development [17], and nutrient uptake [18] have been described, information regarding transcriptional regulation of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites is currently limited to freshwater toxins such as the microcystins. The microcystins are potent hepatotoxins synthesized by several freshwater cyanobacteria of worldwide occurrence [19] and are generated via a mixed polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) gene cluster [20]. Expression of the microcystin gene cluster is positively pheromone correlated with increased light intensity and red light in particular [21]. Moreover, the gene cluster has different transcription start sites depending on light levels [22]. Other environmental factors have been evaluated for their effects on microcystin production, and increasing evidence suggests that iron may be important. Transcription of genes from the microcystin gene cluster increases with iron starvation [23], and in the presence of iron, a ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein appears to bind to the microcystin bidirectional promoter and may decrease microcystin production [24]. Because it complexes with iron and other metals [25] microcystin may therefore function as a siderophore.

50–60 90) 20 94 (6 50–56 00) 20 90 (2 50–60 90) Tender joint coun

50–60.90) 20.94 (6.50–56.00) 20.90 (2.50–60.90) Tender joint count [0–68] 6.3 (0–24) 6.7 (1–22) 6.0 (0–24) Swollen joint count [0–68] 5.9 (0–22) 5.4 (0–18) 4.8 (0–22) mHAQ [0–24] 0.65 (0–2) 0.44 (0–2) 0.72 (0–2) CRP [mg/dL] 1.5 (0.1–13.5) 1.6 (0.1–13.5) 1.4 (0.1–8.4) RF positive [n (%)] 34 (79.0) 13 (72.2) 21 (84.0) ACPA positive [n (%)] 22 (51.1) 11 (61.1) 11 (44.0) All values are presented as means with ranges given in parentheses unless specified

otherwise ACPA anti-citrullinated protein autoantibody, CDAI clinical disease Forskolin purchase activity index, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28-CRP disease activity score 28 based on C-reactive protein, mHAQ modified health assessment questionnaire; RF rheumatoid factor, SDAI simplified disease activity index 3.2 Interventions In total, 41 patients received GLM at Endocrinology antagonist a dose of 50 mg every 4 weeks in combination with MTX (mean dose 6.23 mg/week) and 2 patients received GLM monotherapy at a dose of 100 mg Selleck MM-102 every 4 weeks. Four patients were unsatisfied with the inconvenience of self-injection and injection pain of prior biological treatment, despite sufficient clinical response; therefore, those patients in clinical remission at baseline were switched to GLM treatment as a result of patients’ wishes. Of the 43 patients, 35 completed the 24-week treatment period. 3.3 Effectiveness Remission

rates, defined as the proportion of patients achieving a DAS28-CRP <2.3 and an SDAI score <3.3, steadily improved over the course of treatment with GLM (Fig. 1). After 8 weeks of treatment, 71.4 % of patients achieved a DAS28-CRP <2.3 and 50.0 % achieved an SDAI

score <3.3. After 8 weeks of treatment, the DAS28-CRP and SDAI remission rates were higher in patients who had not received prior biological agents versus those who had (55.6 those vs 50.0 % and 61.1 vs 41.7 %, respectively). Fig. 1 Remission rate in 43 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with golimumab alone or in combination with methotrexate. Remission was defined as a 28-joint disease activity score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) of <2.3 or a simplified disease activity index (SDAI) score of <3.3. DAS28-CRP remission and DAS28-CRP plus SDAI remission (ALL) are shown. BL baseline, W weeks The mean DAS28-CRP 4 weeks after the start of treatment was significantly improved compared with the pretreatment score [mean DAS28-CRP at week 4 = 1.80 vs 4.14 (range 1.28–7.04) at baseline; p < 0.001]. Improvements in DAS28-CRP and SDAI scores throughout the treatment period were similar in bio-naïve patients and those who had received prior biological agents (Figs. 2, 3). Changes in DAS28-CRP and SDAI scores at 4 and 8 weeks were statistically significant compared with baseline in both bio-naïve patients and those who had received prior biological agents (all p < 0.001). Fig.

J Med Microbiol 2005, 54:615–619 CrossRefPubMed 56 Al-Shaikh SA,

J Med Microbiol 2005, 54:615–619.CrossRefPubMed 56. Al-Shaikh SA, Senok

AC, Ismaeel AY, Botta GA: Invasive capabilities of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in Bahrain: molecular and phenotypic characterization. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2007, 54:139–150.CrossRefPubMed 57. Müller J, Schulze F, Müller W, Hänel I: PCR detection of virulence-associated genes in Campylobacter jejuni strains with differential ability to invade Caco-2 cells and to colonize the chick gut. Vet Microbiol 2006, 113:123–129.CrossRefPubMed 58. Müller J, Meyer B, Hänel I, Hotzel H: Comparison of lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis genes of Campylobacter jejuni strains with varying abilities to colonize the chicken gut and PLX4032 clinical trial to invade Caco-2 cells. J Med Microbiol 2007, 56:1589–1594.CrossRefPubMed 59. Bauer BA, Stevens MK, Hansen EJ: Involvement of the Haemophilus ducreyi gmh A gene product in lipooligosaccharide expression and virulence. Infect Immun 1998, 66:4290–4298.PubMed 60. Tenor JL, McCormick BA, Ausubel FM, Aballay A:Caenorhabditis elegans -based screen identifies Salmonella virulence factors required for conserved host-pathogen interactions. Curr Biol 2004, 14:1018–1024.CrossRefPubMed 61. Kanipes MI, Tan X, Akelaitis A, Li J, Rockabrand D, Guerry P, Monteiro MA: Genetic analysis Akt inhibitor of lipooligosaccharide core biosynthesis in Campylobacter jejuni

81–176. J Bacteriol 2008, 190:1568–1574.CrossRefPubMed 62. Wallace FA, Miles EA, Evans C, Stock TE, Yaqoob P, Calder PC: Dietary fatty acids influence the production of Th1- but not Th2-type cytokines. J Leukocyte Biol 2001, 69:449–457.PubMed 63. O’shea M, Bassaganya-Riera J, Mohede IC: Immunomodulatory properties of Thymidylate synthase conjugated linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 2004,79(Suppl):1199S-1206S.PubMed 64. Puertollano MA, de Pablo MA, Alvarez de Cienfuegos G: Immunomodulatory effects of dietary lipids alter host natural resistance of mice to Listeria

monocytogenes infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2001, 32:47–52.CrossRefPubMed 65. Puertollano MA, Puertollano E, Epigenetics inhibitor Ruiz-Bravo A, Jiménez-Valera M, De Pablo MA, De Cienfuegos GA: Changes in the immune functions and susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice fed dietary lipids. Immunol Cell Biol 2004, 82:370–376.CrossRefPubMed 66. Puertollano MA, Cruz-Chamorro L, Puertollano E, Pérez-Toscano MT, Alvarez de Cienfuegos G, de Pablo MA: Assessment of interleukin-12, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion in sera from mice fed with dietary lipids during different stages of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Clin Diagn Labor Immunol 2005, 12:1098–1103. 67. Fox JG, Rogers AB, Whary MT, Ge Z, Taylor NS, Xu S, Horwitz BH, Erdman SE: Gastroenteritis in NF-kappaB-deficient mice is produced with wild-type Camplyobacter jejuni but not with C.

Designing of Las specific primers and experimental validation of

Designing of Las specific primers and experimental validation of the specificity and sensitivity of qRT-PCR assay to detect Las Based on the genome sequence of Las strain psy62, we designed 34 qRT-PCR primer pairs that specifically target the 34 unique sequences identified in our bioinformatic analyses (Additional file 4: Table S1). We designed the melting click here temperature (Tm) of each of these primers to range from 59°C to 65°C with an optimum of 62°C. The GC content of the primers ranged from 35% to 65% with an optimum of 50%. The PCR amplicon sizes for each primer set are between 84 to 185 bp (Additional file 4: Table S1). In addition to the novel find more primers designed in this work, we also used a set

of control primers that have been previously used in a qRT-PCR based detection of Las. These known primers include 16S rDNA pairs specific to the three different Candidatus

Liberibacter species (HLBasf/r: Las, HLBamf/r: Lam and HLBaf/r: Laf) [23], β-operon (CQULA04f/r: β-operon) [26], Selleck PS-341 intragenic repeats regions of the prophage sequence (LJ900f/r: Prophage) [25], and the primer pair specific to the plant cytochrome oxidase (COXf/r: COX) gene [23] as a positive endogenous control. We performed qRT-PCR assays to test the specificity of the designed primers using total DNA extracted from Las-infected citrus plants as a template. To further validate the specificity of these primers, we also included total DNA from the phylogenetically closely related species Lam and Laf in our test. Additionally, DNA extracted from healthy citrus plant was used as a negative control, whereas water served as a no template control. The results of qRT-PCR assays are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Specificity and sensitivity of the novel primers in the detection of Las as shown by qRT-PCR assay Primer pairs Target gene Las CT value of the qRT-PCR# Negative control Other controls CT value R 2 value† Slope†

Laf Lam Healthy plant tissue Water C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 P1 CLIBASIA_05555 20.54 0.9944 -0.2883 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P2 CLIBASIA_04315 19.99 0.9867 -0.2849 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P3 CLIBASIA_05575 20.15 0.9991 -0.2847 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P4 CLIBASIA_05465 19.52 0.9618 -0.2897 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P5 CLIBASIA_01460 19.48 0.9995 -0.2969 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD Baf-A1 supplier UD UD UD P6 CLIBASIA_05145 22.29 0.9971 -0.3057 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P7 CLIBASIA_05545 20.11 0.9972 -0.3407 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P8 CLIBASIA_05560 19.92 0.9982 -0.3132 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P9 CLIBASIA_02025 20.12 0.9875 -0.2743 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P10 CLIBASIA_05605 20.18 0.9945 -0.2781 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P11 CLIBASIA_03090 23.61 0.9997 -0.2867 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P12 CLIBASIA_03875 27.47 0.9992 -0.2563 UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P13 CLIBASIA_02305 UD NT NT UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD UD P14 CLIBASIA_05495 21.25 0.9974 -0.

Tsintzas K, Williams C, Boobis L, Symington S, Moorehouse J, Garc

Tsintzas K, Williams C, Boobis L, Symington S, Moorehouse J, Garcia-Roves P, Nicholas C: Effect of carbohydrate feeding during recovery from prolonged running on muscle glycogen metabolism during subsequent exercise. Int J Sports

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Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions RB-M performed the experiments and wrote the manuscript. AJC carried out the viral infections and titrations. ET and AA participated in the experimental design and helped to edit the manuscript. JAL-G and AF-R conceived and designed the study, and participated in experimental design. JAL-G coordinated the study and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are intracellular storage materials of carbon and energy in many prokaryotes. Ralstonia eutropha is the most prominent and best-studied poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating bacterium [1–3]. The results of 25 years of research on biosynthesis, maintenance, intracellular degradation (mobilization) and application of PHA meanwhile provide a good picture on the structure and components of PHB granules. PHB granules are composed of an amorphous polymer core that is enclosed by a dense proteinaceous surface layer (for reviews see [4–13]). Polymer and surface layer constitute a multifunctional complex for which the term carbonosomes has been proposed [14].

J Oral Rehabil 31(8):733–737CrossRef van den Berg TI, Elders LA,

J Oral Rehabil 31(8):733–737CrossRef van den Berg TI, Elders LA, de Zwart BC, Burdorf A (2009) The effects of work-related and individual factors on the work ability index: a systematic review. Occup Environ Med 66(4):211–220CrossRef van den Berg TI, Elders LA, de Zwart BC, Burdorf A (2011) The effects of work-related and individual factors on the work ability index: a systematic review. Occup Environ Med 66(4):211–220CrossRef Waghorn G, Chant D (2011) Receiving treatment, labour force activity, and work performance among people with psychiatric disorders: results from a population survey. J Occup Rehabil 21(4):547–558CrossRef Wahlstrom

J, Lindegard A, Ahlborg G Jr, Ekman A, Hagberg M (2003) Perceived muscular tension, emotional stress, psychological demands and physical load during VDU work. Int Arch Occup BAY 1895344 Environ Health 76(8):584–590CrossRef”
“Introduction A return to work plays an important role in the occupational

health and rehabilitation of working-age post-stroke patients. Previous studies, including our own, identified determinants of early return to work in terms of functional and socioeconomic conditions of the patients (Saeki and Toyonaga 2010; Tanaka et al. 2011). These previous studies focused on the patient’s condition PLX3397 in the pre-stroke, hospitalized, and at-discharge periods, since these will predict the functional recovery which is expected within 3–6 months after onset (Bonita and Beaglehole 1988). However, the impact of higher cortical dysfunction has been poorly studied apart from a study by Tanaka et al. (2011) in which the authors identified that higher cortical dysfunction significantly reduced the chance of very early return to work within 1 month after discharge in those with mild physical impairment. Since the recovery in higher cortical function is likely to be observed several months after a stroke and into the chronic period

after 6 months (Ferro and Crespo 1988), the influence of higher cortical dysfunction on return to work in the chronic Fludarabine datasheet phase could be more important than in the earlier phase. Furthermore, the earlier study did not specify what type of higher cortical function is related to return to work among those with different levels of physical impairment. In this study, we specifically focused on the impact of higher cortical dysfunction on return to work in the chronic phase, in addition to the functional and social factors discussed in previous studies. Since the rehabilitation of higher cortical dysfunction often requires a distinct set of resources compared with that required for physical dysfunction, we believe that the results of this study will provide Wortmannin solubility dmso information on the need for cognitive rehabilitation in the chronic stage of stroke recovery to enable return to work. Methods Participants The study was performed on the same prospective cohort as in Tanaka et al. (2011).

In addition, similar

to FasL and RCAS1, CD70 overexpresse

In addition, similar

to FasL and RCAS1, CD70 overexpressed on RCC promotes lymphocyte Selleckchem AG-120 apoptosis by binding to its receptor CD27, indicating a proapoptotic role of CD70 in the elimination of TICs as well [82]. All these observations suggest that the direct induction of TIC apoptosis by persistent expression of FasL, RCAS1 this website or perhaps other apoptosis-inducing ligands (e.g. CD70) on carcinoma cells plays a role in the ability of carcinoma cells to escape from the anti-carcinoma immunity. Suppression of TIC activity by molecular and cellular factors Immunoregulatory cytokine/cytokine-like: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and Galectin-1 (Gal-1) TGF-β1 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in immunosuppression. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that a higher level of TGF-β1 expression is significantly

associated with an invasive phenotype of tumors or metastases in patients [83–86]. In vitro a significant amount of TGF-β1 is produced in the poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma cell lines but not in well-differentiated cells [87]. These data imply that TGF-β1 may increase metastasis by a paracrine matter, such as suppression of local immune response or increased angiogenesis. Indeed, in the biopsies of cervical carcinoma tumors, an inverse relationship between TGF-β1 expression in tumor cells and the extent of TICs is demonstrated [88]. Raf inhibitor This clinical observation is further confirmed by several experimental studies. In a mouse skin explant model, TGF-β1 is produced by progressor types but not regressor squamous cell carcinoma acetylcholine lines, and this tumor-derived cytokine inhibits migration of professional APCs, Langerhans cells (LCs), and keeps them in an immature

form [89], or transgenic expression of TGF-β1 enhances growth of regressor squamous carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo just like progressor phenotype, and reduces the number of infiltrating LCs, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [90]. A further study with invasive colon carcinoma U9A cell line shows that decreasing TGF-β1 expression by antisense reduces the invasive activity and metastasis of tumor cells to the liver [91]. All these studies suggest that carcinoma-derived TGF-β plays an important role in the tumor metastasis, which may be caused by its immune suppressive function. Gal-1 is a member of β-galacosidess binding protein family (galectins), and is a recently identified immunoregulatory cytokine-like molecule in cancer [92]. It has been documented that Gal-1 exhibits immunoregulatory effects by which it controls immune cell trafficking, regulates activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and induces T-cell apoptosis [93].

140 0 042 0 271 0 005 3 ↑ 0 028 171 0 182 0 027 0 138 0 022 3 ↓ 0

140 0.042 0.271 0.005 3 ↑ 0.028 171 0.182 0.027 0.138 0.022 3 ↓ 0.004 267 0.309 0.248 0.811 0.233 3 ↑ 0.019 376 0.362 0.169 0.109 0.010 3 ↓ 0.120 408 0.400 0.072 0.380 0.165 3 ↓ 0.828 413 0.058 0.011 0.0716 0.002 3 ↑ 0.113 440 0.048 0.004 0.077 0.010 3 ↑ 0.042 458 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/amg510.html 0.118 0.003 0.102 0.002 3 ↓ 0.015 461 0.051 0.008 0.069 0.006 3 ↑ 0.134 483 0.072 0.005 0.087 0.004 3 ↑ 0.021 515 0.192 0.027 0.255

0.016 3 ↑ 0.079 522 0.410 0.008 0.587 0.081 3 ↑ 0.073 573 0.079 0.008 0.135 0.004 3 ↑ 0.002 659 0.091 0.005 0.107 0.005 3 ↑ 0.115 667 0.140 0.005 0.170 0.012 3 ↑ 0.038 673 0.140 0.027 0.187 0.006 3 ↑ 0.086 680 0.255 0.009 0.302 0.004 3 ↑ 0.006 767 0.062 0.005 0.040 0.012 3 ↓ 0.030 878 0.277 0.086 0.094 0.025 3 ↓ 0.055 895 0.175 0.011 0.114 0.016

3 ↓ 0.011 897 0.181 0.049 0.085 0.011 3 ↓ 0.066 900 0.087 0.008 0.048 0.011 3 ↓ 0.025 903 0.068 0.020 0.152 0.028 3 ↑ 0.086 923 0.070 0.018 0.153 0.031 3 ↑ 0.038 924 0.029 0.006 0.064 0.011 3 ↑ 0.015 941 0.566 0.184 0.078 0.134 3 ↓ 0.114 948 0.080 0.020 0.120 0.008 3 ↑ 0.126 951 0.047 0.021 0.045 0.024 3 ↓ 0.9 1, direction of change of relative spot volume in samples in relation to CHM treatment (C, data from control cells; CMH, data from CMH treated cells). Mwe (kDa) Access keyf High Anlotinib price in CMH               267 Vimentin 37 21 189 4.9 54 P20152 522 Malate dehydrogenase – cytoplasmic 21 6 65 6.2 37 Q6PAB3 667 Peroxiredoxin-4 26 6 73 6.8 31 O08807 680 Thioredoxin dependent peroxide reductase 45 9 98 5.9 28 P20108 High in Controls               171 GRP75, 75 kDa glucose

regulated protein precursor 16 10 76 5.8 74 P38674 941 GRP78, 78 kDa glucose regulated protein precursor 24 16 120 4.9 72 P06761 a, The minimum coverage of the matched peptides in relation to the full-length sequence. b, The number of matched peptides in the database search. c, Score of the Mascot search. d, Theoretical pI of the full length protein. e, Theoretical molecular mass (Mw) of the full length protein. Moreover, in order to investigate the Interleukin-2 receptor IWR-1 ic50 relationship between the proteomic spots, identified by the PLS-DA model and the metabolite profile of the myotubes, a PLS2 regression was carried out between the NMR metabolite profile and the 28 differentially regulated spots.