Their mean ages of onset are 5 and 7 years, respectively

Their mean ages of onset are 5 and 7 years, respectively. LB-100 mw Diagnostic criteria and appropriate evaluation represent the key issues. Therapeutic recommendations include reassurance, lifestyle changes, and prophylactic as well as acute antimigraine therapy. (C) 2010 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) plays a major role in angiogenesis. The pattern recognition receptor long-pentraxin 3

(PTX3) inhibits the angiogenic activity of FGF2. To identify novel FGF2-antagonistic peptide(s), four acetylated (Ac) synthetic peptides overlapping the FGF2-binding region PTX3-(97-110) were assessed for their FGF2-binding capacity. Among them, the shortest pentapeptide Ac-ARPCA-NH(2) (PTX3-[100-104])

inhibits the interaction of FGF2 with PTX3 immobilized to a BIAcore sensorchip and suppresses FGF2-dependent proliferation in endothelial cells, without affecting the activity of unrelated mitogens. Also, Ac-ARPCA-NH(2) inhibits angiogenesis triggered by FGF2 or by tumorigenic FGF2-overexpressing selleck screening library murine endothelial cells in chick and zebrafish embryos, respectively. Accordingly, the peptide hampers the binding of FGF2 to Chinese Hamster ovary cells overexpressing the tyrosine-kinase FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1) and to recombinant FGFR1 immobilized to a BIAcore sensorchip without affecting heparin interaction. In all the assays the mutated Ac-ARPSA-NH(2) peptide was ineffective. In keeping with the observation that

hydrophobic interactions dominate the interface between FGF2 and the FGF-binding domain of the Ig-like HIF inhibitor loop D2 of FGFR1, amino acid substitutions in Ac-ARPCA-NH(2) and saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of its mode of interaction with FGF2 implicate the hydrophobic methyl groups of the pentapeptide in FGF2 binding. These results will provide the basis for the design of novel PTX3-derived anti-angiogenic FGF2 antagonists.”
“The molecule of the title compound, C(10)H(9)BrO(2), a doubly conjugated unsaturated ketone, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms = 0.039 angstrom). In the crystal structure, two molecules are linked across a centre of inversion to form a hydrogen-bonded dimer by way of two O-H center dot center dot center dot O links.”
“Understanding treatment preferences of seriously ill patients is complex. Previous studies have shown a correlation between the burden and outcome of a treatment and the likelihood a patient will accept a given intervention. In this study the Willingness to Accept Life Sustaining Treatment (WALT) survey was used in a predominantly Latino population receiving care at a large urban safety net hospital. Eligible patients were cared for by one of four clinics: (1) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (2) geriatrics; (3) oncology; or (4) cardiology.

These results are generally consistent with previous studies in M

These results are generally consistent with previous studies in Mus, and suggest defeat stress also increases NAc dopamine signaling in females. However, these results do not explain our previous observations that defeat stress induces social withdrawal in female but not male California mice. Pharmacological manipulations provided more insights. When 500 ng of the D1 agonist SKF38393 was infused in the NAc shell of females that were naive to defeat, social interaction behavior was reduced. This same dose of SKF38393 had no effect in males, suggesting

that D1 receptor activation is sufficient to induce social withdrawal in females but not males. Intra-accumbens infusion of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 increased social approach behavior in females exposed Metabolism inhibitor to defeat but not in females naive to defeat. This result suggests that PKC412 mw D1 receptors are necessary for defeat-induced social withdrawal. Overall, our results suggest that sex differences in molecular pathways that are regulated by D1 receptors contribute to sex differences in social withdrawal behavior. (C) 2013

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Appropriate nomenclature of benign vascular tumors and tumor-like conditions is problematic due to overlapping histologic features, limited understanding of the pathogenesis, and controversy regarding classification. Benign vascular anomalies are categorized into malformations, neoplasms, reactive proliferations, or ectasias based on their clinical behavior, currently accepted etiologies, and histopathology. We address controversies in the classification of some entities and also discuss recent immunohistochemical developments that have raised questions regarding the origin of certain vascular tumors. This comprehensive review focuses on the clinical presentation, behavior, associated

conditions, selleck kinase inhibitor histopathological findings, and differential diagnoses of benign vascular tumors and tumor-like conditions. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We present the case of a 37-year-old patient diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) syndrome, as confirmed by genetic tests, who underwent the transplantation of a kidney from a cadaveric donor. MEN 2A, a hereditary autosomal dominant syndrome, is caused by the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. In almost all patients this syndrome, is characterized by the occurrence of medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma; in some individuals also hyperparathyroidism. The available literature has not documented a kidney transplantation performed in Poland for this indication.”
“Background: Ankle valgus deformity secondary to proximal migration of the fibula following an Ilizarov tibial lengthening has not been discussed in detail in the literature.

Production of IFN-gamma was decreased and IL-2 was increased from

Production of IFN-gamma was decreased and IL-2 was increased from ConA stimulated flight splenocytes. This study demonstrated that expression of surface molecules can be affected by conditions of spaceflight and impaired responsiveness persists buy CYT387 under culture conditions in vitro.”
“The RNA-mediated disease model for myotonic dystrophy (DM) proposes that microsatellite C(C)TG expansions express toxic RNAs that disrupt splicing regulation by altering MBNL1 and CELF1 activities. While this model

explains DM manifestations in muscle, less is known about the effects of C(C)UG expression on the brain. Here, we report that Mbnl2 knockout mice develop several DM-associated central nervous system (CNS) features including abnormal REM sleep propensity and deficits in spatial memory. Mbnl2 is prominently expressed in the hippocampus and Mbnl2 knockouts show a decrease in NMDA receptor (NMDAR) synaptic transmission and impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While Mbnl2 loss did not significantly alter target transcript levels in the hippocampus, misregulated splicing of hundreds of exons was detected using splicing microarrays, RNA-seq, and HITS-CLIP. Importantly, the majority of the

Mbnl2-regulated exons examined PRIMA-1MET were similarly misregulated in DM. We propose that major pathological features of the DM brain result from disruption of the MBNL2-mediated developmental splicing program.”
“In the view of transmutation of transuranium ( TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations – a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all

cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution Selisistat order of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed.

We conclude that the process of EMR implementation should be trea

We conclude that the process of EMR implementation should be treated as a change project, and led by implementers or change managers, in medical practices. The quality of change management plays an important role in the success of EMR implementation. The barriers and suggested interventions highlighted in this study are intended to act as a reference for implementers of Electronic Medical Records. A careful diagnosis Pfizer Licensed Compound Library purchase of the specific situation is required before relevant interventions can be determined.”
“A model is described that predicts patterns of polyomavirus SV40 infections and associated cancers in

humans. The model proposes that SV40 infections were established in humans primarily by exposure to contaminated oral poliovaccines and that infections persist today in geographic regions where poor sanitation or living conditions allow maintenance of infections transmitted by a fecal/urine-oral route. Predictions from the model include that SV40 infections and virus-associated malignancies will be restricted geographically and demographically and that in developed countries, such as the US, SV40 prevalence rates will be generally very low. The model highlights the importance

of selection of populations for investigations of SV40 human infections. This model can explain inconsistencies in the published literature of SV40 infections in humans and can guide the design of future studies.”
“Introduction: Recent scientific studies show that gut microbiota may play an important role in the modulation of the body weight of the host.\n\nObjective: The aim of this article is AZD5582 to present an updated review of the scientific literature dealing with the potential roles of the gut microbiota and probiotics on the body weight of the host, including the predisposition to and prevention of overweight and obesity.\n\nResults and conclusions: The use of probiotics in different growth stages, both in human and animal hosts, is usually associated to a beneficial

effect to the host’s health. Admittedly, benefits associated to growth do not necessarily imply an increase in the adipose tissue or a predisposition to overweight or obesity. At present, the data that link the presence of specific gut microbial groups with obesity are controversial since it is unknown if they represent a cause or a consequence of obesity-associated diets and/or any other factor related to the pathogenesis of this condition. Studies dealing with the modulation of the gut microbiota to prevent or control obesity in the host, including the use of probiotics, are promising. In fact, probiotic intake in the mother-infant context might contribute to the control of the adult body weight by modulating the infant gut microbiota.

Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease Echinococcosis is

Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant’s metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA,

and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation BTSA1 mouse of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody AEB071 response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment.”
“The Fagaceae is one of the most important plant families in European forest

ecosystems, and it includes several genera distributed in the Northern hemisphere. In this work we studied the genome organization and evolution within the family, by karyotyping SHP099 manufacturer and physically mapping rDNA in ten European and Asian species of the genera Fagus, Quercus, and Castanea. All of the species studied had a chromosome number of 2n=2x=24, except for the first report of a single individual of Quercus suber which proved to be triploid (2n=3x=36). The rDNA physical mapping revealed several patterns: the dominant one is present in European and Asian Quercus subgenus Quercus, and in Castanea sativa and Castanea

crenata, consisting of two 18S-25S rDNA loci (one subterminal major and one pericentromeric minor) and one 5S rDNA pericentromeric locus. In Fagus sylvatica and in Quercus sessilifolia, different patterns were observed: four terminal 18S-25S rDNA loci and two 5S rDNA pericentromeric loci in the former, and five 18S-25S rDNA loci (three terminal and two intercalary) and one 5S rDNA pericentromeric locus in the latter. In Castanea mollissima a distinct rDNA distribution pattern with two intercalary 18S-25S rDNA loci and two 5S rDNA was found. These findings suggest rDNA loci restructuring during Castanea evolution, and variability of 18S-25S loci between Quercus and Cyclo-balanopsis subgenera.”
“Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated.

Their structures were identified using spectral methods (UV, IR

. Their structures were identified using spectral methods (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS).”
“BACKGROUND: The next-generation, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays can measure quantifiable concentrations of cTn in a majority Geneticin supplier of individuals, but there are few studies assessing these assays for risk stratification. The present study was undertaken to determine if a research hs-cTnI assay can be useful for predicting

death/myocardial infarction (MI), both short- and long-term, in an emergency department acute coronary syndrome (ACS) population.\n\nMETHODS: In a cohort of 383 subjects, originally recruited in 1996, presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of ACS, the heparin plasma obtained at initial presentation was thawed and measured in 2007 with a research hs-cTnI assay. AccuTnI (Beckman Coulter) measurements were made on these same samples in 2003. The population was divided into 4 groups by hs-cTnI: <5.00, 5.00-9.99, 10.00-40.00, and >40.00 ng/L. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards, ROC curves, and logistic regression analyses were buy GSK3326595 used to identify which hs-cTnI concentrations were predictive of death/MI within 10 years after presentation.\n\nRESULTS: There were significant differences between the hs-cTnI groups for the probability of death/MI

up to 10 years after presentation (P<0.05). At 6 months, patients with hs-cTnI >= 10.00 ng/L were at higher risk for death/MI (hazard ratio >3.7; P<0.05) compared with those having hs-cTnI <5.00

ng/L. ROC curve analysis for death/MI at 30 days with the hs-cTnI assay had an area under the curve of 0.74 (95% CI 0.65-0.82), with logistic models yielding an optimal assay threshold GS-1101 order of 12.68 ng/L.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: This research hs-cTnI assay appears useful for risk stratification for death/MI in an ACS population. (C) 2009 American Association for Clinical Chemistry”
“PURPOSE. Hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are a group of monogenic diseases characterized by an irreversible loss of photoreceptors. HRDs exhibit significant genetic and clinical heterogeneities challenging traditional techniques for determining disease-causal mutations. This study aims to develop an efficient molecular diagnostic platform for HRDs, and to determine the genetic basis for 25 randomly collected Chinese families with a variety of HRDs.\n\nMETHODS. We designed a high throughput sequence capture microarray targeting 179 genes associated with HRDs and 10 candidate genes. We combined sequence capture with next-generation sequencing (NGS) to screen for mutations in the cohort of Chinese families. Variants detected by NGS were filtered, validated, and prioritized by pathogenicity analysis. Genotypes and phenotypes were correlated.\n\nRESULTS.

The adverse event rates after VT ablation were similar to those o

The adverse event rates after VT ablation were similar to those of patients with ICDs but without VT.”
“Objective: To examine GS-7977 ic50 the unique contribution of self-reported medical comorbidity and insurance type on disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Inception cohort design at 1-year follow up. Setting: A university affiliated rehabilitation hospital. Participants: Adults with

mild-complicated to severe TBI (N=70). Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported medical comorbidities were measured using the Modified Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, while insurance type was classified as commercial or government-funded; disability was measured using the Disability Rating Scale. Results: Two models were run using multiple linear regression, and the best-fitting model was selected on the basis of Bayesian information criterion. The full model, which included self-reported medical comorbidity and insurance type, was significantly better fitting than the reduced model. Participants with a longer duration of posttraumatic amnesia, more self-reported medical comorbidities, and

government insurance were more likely to have higher levels of disability. Meanwhile, individual organ systems were not predictive of disability. Conclusions: The cumulative effect of self-reported medical comorbidities and type of insurance coverage predict disability above and beyond well-known prognostic variables. Early assessment of medical complications and improving JNK-IN-8 order services provided by government-funded insurance may enhance quality of life and reduce long-term health care costs. (C) 2014 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine”
“P50 sensory gating deficit has repeatedly been demonstrated in schizophrenia. Studies have produced inconsistent findings with respect to normalization of P50 gating in patients with schizophrenia receiving treatment with different antipsychotics. The current study was designed DZNeP clinical trial to determine whether there is a difference in P50 gating in schizophrenia patients treated with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs),

including clozapine. P50 evoked potential recordings were obtained from 160 patients with schizophrenia and 77 healthy comparison subjects. Forty-three patients were being treated with clozapine, sixty-eight were taking SGAs (33 risperidone, 21 olanzapine, 11 aripiprazole, and 3 combinations of SGAs) and 49 were being treated with FGAs. Schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly higher P50 ratios than healthy subjects. When patients treated with different antipsychotics were compared, there were no differences in any of the neurophysiological findings. Second-generation antipsychotics were not related to more normal sensory gating in this population of patients with chronic schizophrenia. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

Design: Controlled prospective animal study Setting: Research la

Design: Controlled prospective animal study. Setting: Research laboratory at academic medical center. Subjects: Conscious unrestrained young and aged male mice. Interventions: Mice were treated with the TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin, a TRPM8 inhibitor (“compound 5″), or their combination and the effects on core temperature

(T-core) were measured by implanted thermocouples and wireless transponders. Measurements and Main Results: TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin produced a dose-dependent (2-4 mg/kg Selleckchem LY3023414 s.c.) drop in T-core. A loading dose followed by continuous infusion of dihydrocapsaicin produced a rapid and prolonged ( bigger than 6 hr) drop of T-core within the therapeutic range (32-34 degrees C). The hypothermic effect of dihydrocapsaicin was augmented in aged mice and was not desensitized with repeated administration. TRPM8 inhibitor “compound 5″ (20 mg/kg s.c.) augmented the drop in core temperature during cold exposure (8 degrees C). When “compound 5″ (30 mg/kg) was combined with dihydrocapsaicin (1.25-2.5 mg/kg), the drop in

T-core was amplified and prolonged. Conclusions: Activating warm receptors (TRPV1) produced rapid and lasting hypothermia in young and old mice. Furthermore, hypothermia induced by TRPV1 agonists was potentiated and prolonged by simultaneous inhibition of TRPM8.”
“Ethnopharmacological relevance: Byrsonima verbascifolia is used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea, Selleck MI-503 intestinal LXH254 infections, chronic wounds, Chagas disease, inflammation and as a diuretic. However there is no investigation regarding the Byrsonima verbascifolia hydrometanolic extract (BVHME) used during gestation. Materials and methods: The pregnant females were randomly divided

into 5 groups. Control group received saline plus DMSO (1%) in a volume of 0.1 mL/10 g (b.w.), via gavage, for at least 15 days prior to mating and throughout the gestational period. The Pre-treatment group received the BVHME, via gavage, at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.) for at least 15 days prior to mating and up to the appearance of the vaginal plug. The Organogenesis group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, on the 5-15th gestational day. The Gestational group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, throughout the gestational period (from the 1st to the 18th day of pregnancy). The Pre+Gestational group received the BVHME at a dose of 50 mg/kg (b.w.), via gavage, for at least 15 days prior to mating and up to throughout the gestational period. The clinical signals of maternal and fetuses toxicity were evaluated, as the mutagenicity and immunomodulation tests were performed.

This compound was identified as 2-(2-ethoxy-5-(2-(4-ethylpiperazi

This compound was identified as 2-(2-ethoxy-5-(2-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)acetyl)phenyl)-5-methyl-7-propyl-imidazo(5,1-f)-(1,2,4)triazin-4(3H)-one, which is also called acetylvardenafil. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Thrombin-generation and activation of platelets during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) play a key role for early thrombotic

events. Heparin and bivalirudin are approved anticoagulants for PCI. We examined the specific effects of these anticoagulants on platelet adhesion and aggregation under high shear conditions, and the presence of excess thrombin. To simulate in vivo conditions that may precipitate a bleeding/thrombotic event, we added thrombin in vitro to blood samples from 89 stable patients who had been randomly assigned to receive heparin or bivalirudin for elective PCI and examined Ispinesib clinical trial thrombin-inducible platelet adhesion and aggregation under high shear conditions. Platelet adhesion increased by 10% of baseline with

heparin, but decreased by 20% with bivalirudin (p=0.0047). Thrombin-inducible platelet adhesion and size of aggregates was equally inhibited by heparin and bivalirudin. Thus, under high shear conditions and excessive thrombin generation as they occur in atherosclerotic vascular compartments and acute vascular syndromes, heparin and bivalirudin inhibit thrombin-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation to Wnt inhibitor a similar extent, while they have opposite effects on platelet adhesion in the absence of thrombin.”
“Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of an expandable implant (EI) in ovariectomized sheep.\n\nMethods: The EI and taper implant (control group) were produced and placed in mandibles of ovariectomized sheep.

Twelve weeks after implantation, resonance frequency analysis, biomechanical tests, histomorphometry, and micro-computed tomography were applied to detect the osseointegration in the 2 groups.\n\nResults: ML323 mouse The implant stability quotient values, maximal pullout forces, and bone-implant contact (BIC) were 60.3 +/- 7.9, 511.0 +/- 18.7 N, and 53.14% +/- 4.56%, respectively, in the EI group and 58.3 +/- 8.9, 394.5 +/- 54.5 N, and 46.85% +/- 5.04%, respectively, in the control group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in implant stability quotient values (P > .05); however, in the EI group the maximal pullout force and BIC were increased significantly (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that the bone volume/total volume ratio and trabecular number increased significantly (P < .01) and trabecular separation decreased significantly (P < .05) in the EI group.

We have previously demonstrated that (i) inactivated yeasts of Ca

We have previously demonstrated that (i) inactivated yeasts of Candida albicans induce in vitro differentiation of HSPCs towards the myeloid lineage, and (ii) soluble TLR agonists induce in vivo their differentiation Ricolinostat manufacturer towards macrophages.

In this work, using an in vivo model of HSPCs transplantation, we report for the first time that HSPCs sense C.albicans in vivo and subsequently are directed to produce macrophages by a TLR2-dependent signalling. Purified lineage-negative cells (Lin-) from bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice (CD45.2 alloantigen) were transplanted into B6Ly5.1 mice (CD45.1 alloantigen), which were then injected with viable or inactivated C.albicans yeasts. Transplanted cells were detected in the spleen and in the bone marrow of recipient selleck kinase inhibitor mice, and they differentiate preferentially to macrophages, both in response to infection or in response to inactivated yeasts. The generation of macrophages was dependent on TLR2 but independent of TLR4, as transplanted Lin- cells from TLR2-/- mice did not give rise to macrophages, whereas Lin- cells from TLR4-/- mice generated macrophages similarly to control cells. Interestingly, the absence

of TLR2, or in a minor extent TLR4, gives Lin- cells an advantage in transplantation assays, as increases the percentage of transplanted recovered cells. Our results indicatethat TLR-mediated recognition of C.albicans by HSPCs Selleck LEE011 may help replace and/or increase cells that constitute the first line of defence against the fungus, and suggest that

TLR-mediated signalling may lead to reprogramming early progenitors to rapidly replenishing the innate immune system and generate the most necessary mature cells to deal with the pathogen.”
“Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) expresses an 87-amino acid protein named p13 that is targeted to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Previous studies showed that a synthetic peptide spanning an alpha helical domain of p13 alters mitochondrial membrane permeability to cations, resulting in swelling. The present study examined the effects of full-length p13 on isolated, energized mitochondria. Results demonstrated that p13 triggers an inward K+ current that leads to mitochondrial swelling and confers a crescent-like morphology distinct from that caused by opening of the permeability transition pore. p13 also induces depolarization, with a matching increase in respiratory chain activity, and augments production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These effects require an intact alpha helical domain and strictly depend on the presence of K+ in the assay medium. The effects of p13 on ROS are mimicked by the K+ ionophore valinomycin, while the protonophore FCCP decreases ROS, indicating that depolarization induced by K+ vs.