1984) By rapid cooling of a thin layer of an aqueous solution of

1984). By rapid cooling of a thin layer of an aqueous solution of macromolecules on an EM grid, a thin amorphous layer of ice is formed,

in which objects are visible without any staining agent. Ice-embedded specimens very much reflect cellular aqueous situations, and hence the method quickly became popular within the field. Because the contrast is only caused by the difference in density between amorphous ice (0.93 g/cm3) and protein (1.3–1.36 g/cm3), it is rather low in comparison to negative staining. It is obvious that for large objects such as symmetric virus molecules, cryo-EM is superior to negative staining. However, in the case of unstable protein complexes, which Selleck Doramapimod cannot be purified to PI3K inhibitor homogeneity (e.g., large, transient membrane complexes), unstained specimens can be a real problem. Due to the low contrast, the object of choice cannot be discriminated from all kinds of contaminants and breakdown products. The low contrast is, however, likely to be improved in the near future by instrumental improvements, such as implementing phase plates in the microscopes, such as the Zernike phase plate (Yamaguchi et al. 2008). There are several advantages of cryo-EM of vitrified specimens: specimen flattening and other drying artifacts are circumvented. Moreover, cryo-images better reflect the true density of a protein, because the contrast directly originates from scattering

by the protein rather than from the surrounding stain. Also, the interaction of negative stain with the protein is often quite complex if the object is not fully embedded. In thinner stain layers,

the upper part of the protein could easily be less PF-6463922 mw well embedded in the stain IMP dehydrogenase layer, as pointed out in Fig. 1. This means that the contributions of the upper- and lower half of a protein in the final recorded image do not have the same weighting. In contrast, the embedding in a full ice layer gives a more straightforward signal. Cryo-negative staining represents a complementary method for the conventional negative stain EM and a valuable alternative in particular for situations where cryo-EM reaches its limits in terms of visibility of the protein complexes (De Carlo et al. 2008). In cryo-negative staining, particles become embedded in a rather thick layer of stain which is not fully dehydrated, which may prevent flattening and preferential staining. Fig. 1 An example of the footprint effect of negative staining. a A part of a double-layered two-dimensional crystal containing about 1500 photosystem I monomers from a cyanobacterium (Böttcher et al. 1992). b, c Filtered images resulting from a crystallographic analysis in which the two layers could be separated. The crystal is composed of rows of monomers. Within the rows, the monomers are either up- or down-oriented, and there is a substantial difference in overall contrast between individual rows of monomers in the upper layer with respect to the lower layer.

However, the effect of RNAlater on IMS separation efficiency has

However, the effect of RNAlater on IMS separation efficiency has not been explored previously. This study tested and developed a method that can be used to study the transcriptome of one species in mixed-species communities, including suspended and biofilm communities. Escherichia coli was selected as the target species in this study and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia #AMN-107 cost randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# as a background species, because we are interested in the interactions between these two species when E. coli forms biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. E. coli is an important indicator of fecal contamination and is detected in some water distribution systems

[17]. S. maltophilia is a ubiquitous species in water systems. For example, the abundance of Stenotrophomonas spp. was 2-6% in a pilot drinking water distribution system [18]. Isolation of both E. coli and S. maltophilia from water filtration and distribution systems [19] suggests that they share the same niches in engineered systems and that interactions between them take place in such systems. The efficiency of IMS to separate E. coli from various

suspended mixtures and biofilms consisting of E. coli and S. maltophilia was evaluated in this study. The recovery and purity of separated E. coli cells were reported. Changes in the transcription profiles of E. coli cells due to sample processing and cell separation were quantified by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed method. We also discussed that the method could be applied C646 solubility dmso to study other species of interest in mixed community systems and was not limited to the example species used in this study as long as a specific antibody for the target species is available. Results and Discussion Recovery rate of E. oxyclozanide coli The recovery rate of E. coli by immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) from a series of suspended cultures was determined first. A general antibody

of E. coli (polyclonal anti-E. coli antibody (ViroStat, Portland, ME)) was used in this study. Using this antibody, the recovery rate of E. coli was 74.4-98.2% when separated from suspended cultures with a density up to 1.9 × 108 CFU/ml (Figure 1). However, the recovery rate dropped to 59.8% for samples with ten-fold higher cells (1.9 × 109 CFU/ml), which may have exceeded the capacity of separation columns used in IMS (Figure 1). Therefore, E. coli cell densities in samples were adjusted to less than 2 × 108 CFU/ml for subsequent IMS. Figure 1 Recovery rates of E. coli cells after immuno-magnetic separation. Recovery rates of E. coli cells after one-step IMS from suspensions of E. coli with densities adjusted from approximately 104 to 109 CFU/ml. Error bars indicate standard deviations of triplicate plate counts. Determining the recovery rate of target species is important when IMS is used to separate target species for subsequent cDNA microarray analysis.

01 0 02 6 Papuasia 2402 1 5 5 0 07 0 01 Biogeographical regions a

01 0.02 6 Papuasia 2402 1 5 5 0.07 0.01 Biogeographical regions are sorted by ascending distance to the study area in Sulawesi. Probability (based on Poisson probability density) is related to the tree species pool observed in both studied sites (71 spp. assigned to valid species names) The likelihood analysis that one of the two

studied forest areas (N, R) included more tree species with nearest neighbour distance to one of the seven islands than the other were not significant, but showed some Caspase inhibitor clinical trial contrasting trends in biogeographical affinities of the two forest communities (Fig. 2). The mid-montane forests showed the greatest similarity with the western Malesian islands of Sundaland, especially Borneo, whilst the upper-montane forests had a great eastern Malesian affinity with New Guinea learn more and also to the Philippines. Endemics to Sulawesi and to Maluku, i.e. Wallacean distributed species, were of equal importance at both sites. Fig. 2 Observed number of tree species selleck chemicals llc (white squares) in the mid-montane forest at Mt Nokilalaki (42 spp.) and the upper montane forest at Mt Rorekautimbu (45 spp.) with nearest neighbour occurrences in seven Malesian biogeographical

regions, and expected patterns (black bars) based on 1000 random samples from the combined tree species pool (71 spp.). Biogeographical regions are sorted by ascending nearest neighbour distances (cf. Table 3) Discussion Elevational patterns in high mountain tree community

composition and structure The high mountain forests in Sulawesi show divergent patterns related to different elevational belts, both in floristic composition and in community CYTH4 dominance of certain taxa. In the Malesian mountain flora, within the montane zone sensu stricto (1600–2400 m a.s.l.), a major species shift indicates an orographic boundary at about 2000 m a.s.l. (van Steenis 1972). The present study supports these findings by showing a species shift between mid- and upper montane elevations (1800–2400 m a.s.l.), with only 18 species in common considering the total data set of 87 tree species (21%). Further, the mossy aspect of the forest at upper montane elevations (Gradstein and Culmsee 2010) also provides evidence for the elevational differences between the investigated forests. In the Fagaceae–Myrtaceae forests surveyed at mid-montane elevations, the Fagaceae play a key role. While four species of Lithocarpus contributed nearly half of the stand basal area, the importance of the family decreased at upper montane elevations in favour of the Podocarpaceae and Phyllocladaceae. Previous studies in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, showed that the Fagaceae were of comparable overall importance at lower montane elevations (at 1400 m a.s.l.), but became less important at submontane elevations (at 1050 m a.s.l.) (Culmsee and Pitopang 2009).

Quiescent HSCs were isolated from normal liver tissues from hepat

Quiescent HSCs were isolated from normal liver tissues from hepatic hemangiomas and prolong culture cells were used as in vitro activated BMS345541 in vitro HSCs. HSCs/myofibroblasts were isolated by collagenase-pronase perfusion and subsequent density centrifugation on Nycodenz gradients. After collagenase-pronase digestion, the resulting cell pellets were centrifuged at 50 g for 2 minutes to remove hepatocytes. Before collecting HSCs/CAMFs, obtained cells were seeded for 15 min in serum free medium to allow Kupffer cells attachment. To further purify non-attached cells, magnetic anti-CD45 beads (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec, Germany) were used to deplete contaminating leucocytes. Peritumoral HSCs and intratumoral CAMFs were

studied at 24 hours after isolation. HSCs from normal livers were studied at 24 hours after isolation (quiescent HSCs) or after 10 days culture (in vitro activated HSCs) without passage, respectively. CD45 and CD31 positive cells were not found in isolated cells by immunocytochemistry staining, demonstrating no contaminating pan-leucocytes and endothelial cells. HSCs purity was assessed by the autofluorescence property and morphology, the populations were more than 95% pure. Primary cells,

HSC cell lines LX-2 (as gifts by professor Jin-sheng Guo in Zhongshan hospital) and three HCC cell lines (MHCC97L, HCCLM3, and HCCLM6) initially SU5402 cost established and preserved by our institute [24] were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin in 95% air and 5% CO2 at 37°C. Gene expression analysis Total RNA was extracted from HSCs/CAMFs for microarray analysis. Microarray hybridization was performed using whole human genome oligo array (4 × 44K, Agilent Technologies) based on the manufacturer’s standard protocol. Differentially expressed genes with statistical significance Astemizole selleck kinase inhibitor between two groups were identified through volcano plot filtering. The threshold is fold change ≥2.0, p-value <0.05. Pathway analysis and gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied. Finally, hierarchical clustering was performed to show the distinguishable

gene expression pattern among samples. Quantitative polymerase chain (qPCR) reaction validation of microarray data A total of 49 genes were confirmed by qPCR as previous protocol [16] using commercially available primer-probe sets (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (SABiosciences). Primers for these genes are listed in Additional file 1. Expression of GAPDH was used as an internal control. The gene expression was quantified by the 2-△△CT method. Statistic analysis Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, Fisher’s exact tests, χ 2 tests, Spearman ρ coefficients tests. The “minimum p value” approach [11, 12] was used to get an optimal cut-off (high α-SMA expression >72) by X-tile 3.6.1 software (Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA). P < 0.

2007) An ecologic study comparing the arsenic-exposed city of

2007). An ecologic study comparing the arsenic-exposed city of

Antofagasta to other regions of Chile found that those exposed in early life had higher death rates from lung cancer (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 6.1, 95% CI 3.5–9.9), bronchiectasis (SMR = 46.2, 95% CI 21.1–87.7), and other COPD (SMR = 7.6, 95% CI 3.1–15.6) in adulthood (Smith et al. 2006). These learn more studies all support our results linking early-life arsenic ingestion to long-term respiratory effects. Our results are consistent with the 2 previously published studies of ingested arsenic and lung function in people with probable adult exposures. In a study involving 31 subjects in Bangladesh, urinary arsenic concentration (indicative of current exposure) was inversely associated with percent predicted FEV1 and FVC (Parvez et al. 2008). In 287 subjects from West Bengal, India, men with arsenic-caused skin lesions had 256 selleck inhibitor and 288 ml lower FEV1 and FVC, respectively, than those without skin lesions or known high arsenic exposures (von Ehrenstein et al. 2005). The FEV1 deficits were much smaller in women (64 ml). We also found much smaller effects in women (17-ml FEV1 reduction

versus 440 ml for men). Other studies have reported greater arsenic-associated health effects in men (Marshall et al. 2007; Rahman et al. 2006), perhaps due to sex-related differences in arsenic metabolism, water intake, occupational and other exposures (Hertz-Picciotto et al. 1992; Lindberg et al. 2010; Vahter 2009). selleck kinase inhibitor The greater effects observed in men in Dolutegravir mw this study were not

likely due to interactions with smoking since larger arsenic-associated lung function deficits were seen in never smokers, yet men smoked more than women in terms of the proportion of ever smokers (71% vs. 63%), pack-years (5.2 vs. 4.0), and cigarettes per day (4.2 vs. 3.4). Strengths of our study include the accuracy of data on past arsenic exposure. In other places with widespread exposure, the abundance of private wells and other water sources, coupled with a lack of historical arsenic records, makes studies of long-term health effects much more difficult. By contrast, northern Chile has limited water sources and has arsenic records dating back more than 50 years, providing a unique opportunity to study the long-term impacts of exposure. The main limitation of this study is the convenience method of participant recruitment, raising concerns about inference and interpretation of results. Although the problem of arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile has been publicized, most information has been on cancer. Our experience is that very few people in the study cities know about the possible role of arsenic in non-malignant respiratory disease.

Clustering was done with tclust, which proceeds by a transitive a

Clustering was done with tclust, which proceeds by a transitive approach (LGX818 minimum overlap: 60 bp at 20 bp maximum of the end of the sequence). Assembly was done with CAP3 (minimum similarity 94%). To detect unigene similarities with other species, several blasts (with high cut-off e-values) were performed against the following

databases: NCBI nr (blastx (release: 1 March 2011); e-value < 5, HSP length > 33aa), Refseq genomic database (blastn, e-value < 10), Unigene division Arthropods (tblastx, #8 Aedes aegypti, #37 Anopheles gambiae, #3 Apis mellifera, #3 Bombyx mori, #53 Drosophila melanogaster, #9 Tribolium castaneum; e-value < 5), Nasonia vitripennis Nvit OGS_v1.0 (CDS predicted by Gnomon (NCBI)) and Wolbachia sequences from Genbank (blastn (release 164); e-value < e-20). Gene Ontology annotation was carried out using Blast2go software [38]. During the first step (mapping), click here a pool of candidate GO terms was obtained for each unigene by retrieving GO terms associated with the hits obtained after a blastx search against NCBI nr. During the second step (annotation), reliable GO terms were selected from the pool of candidate GO terms by applying the Score Function (SF) of Blast2go with permissive annotation parameters (EC_weight=1, e-value_filter=0.1, GO_weight=5, HSP/hit coverage cut-off=0%). In the third step of the annotation procedure, the pool of GO terms selected during the annotation step was

merged with GO terms associated with Interpro domain (Interpro predictions based on the longest ORF). Finally, find more the Annex augmentation step was run to modulate the annotation by adding GO terms derived from implicit relationships between GO terms [39]. In order to extract the

biological processes and molecular functions statistically over-represented in aposymbiotic libraries, we performed a hyper-geometrical test between GO terms from the aposymbiotic libraries (OA1 and OA2) and those from the OS library, which corresponds to natural physiological conditions. The p-values were then adjusted using Bonferroni’s correction. Idelalisib in vivo To perform a functional enrichment analysis of the unigenes extracted from the SSH, we used the FatiGO web tool [40] on the OS library. With respect to the GO analysis, levels 3 and 6 were chosen to describe biological processes, and level 4 was chosen to describe molecular functions. Gene expression measurement by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) We sought to determine the effect of symbiosis on the expression of a set of candidate genes involved in immunity, programmed cell death and oogenesis. For that purpose, we first compared gene expression between symbiotic and aposymbiotic samples, in ovaries (to characterize the dependence phenotype induced by Wolbachia) and then in males (to provide additional information concerning the specificity of the process). In order to limit the influence of the presence of eggs in symbiotic vs.

Phylogenetic

support Tribe Chromosereae is supported by a

Phylogenetic

support Tribe Chromosereae is supported by all molecular phylogenies. Support is strong in our 4-gene backbone analysis (100 % MLBS, 1.0 BPP), Supermatrix (85 % MLBS), LSU (98 %), ITS-LSU (100 % MLBS) and moderate in Dentinger et al.’s ITS analysis (unpublished data, 63 % MLBS). Support for this clade is lower in our ITS analysis (54 % MLBS, Online Resource 3). Previous find more studies also support tribe Chromosereae (represented by C. cyanophylla and C. citrinopallida). Support shown is 90 % MPBS in Moncalvo et al. (2002; LSU), 100 % MLBS in Lawrey et al. (2009; ITS-LSU), and 1.0 BPP and 96 % MLBS in Vizzini and Ercole (2012; ITS, with addition of C. viola and C. xanthochroa). The Supermatrix and ITS-LSU analyses place this group near Gliophorus, supporting Kühner (1980). Genera included Tribe Chromosereae currently is comprised of the type genus, Chromosera, and a new genus, Gloioxanthomyces, erected for Hygrocybe nitida and H. vitellina. Chromosera Redhead, Ammirati &Norvell, Beih. Sydowia 10: 161 learn more (1995), Vizzini & Ercole, Micol. Veget. Medit. 26(1): 97 (2012). Type species: Agaricus cyanophyllus Fr., Öfvers. Kongl. Svensk Vet.-Akad. Förh. 18(1): 23 (1861) ≡ Chromosera cyanophylla (Fr.) Redhead, Ammirati & Norvell, Mycotaxon 118: 456 (2012) [2011]. Emended by Vizzini

& Ercole, Micol. Veget. Medit. 26(2): 97 (2012) [2011]. Characters as in Tribe Chromosereae except for absence of gelatinization of lamellar edge and cheilocystidia; ephemeral dextrinoid reactions in the context, ephemeral pigment bodies in the pileipellis and lilac pigments sometimes present. Phylogenetic support Except for our ITS analysis by Ercole which shows 62 % MLBS support for Chromosera, support for this clade is the same as noted above for tribe Chromosereae. Greater taxon and gene sampling are needed to refine this group. check details Subgenera included Comprising three subgenera: Chromosera, Subomphalia Vizzini, Lodge & Padamsee, subg. nov. and subg. Oreocybe (Boertm.) Vizzini & Lodge, comb. nov. Comments

Chromosera was proposed for what was believed a single amphi-Atlantic species, C. cyanophylla (Redhead et al. 1995, 2012) based on Agaricus cyanophyllus Fr. from Europe and A. lilacifolius Peck from the eastern USA. These species were originally classified among the omphalioid spp. in Agaricus (Omphalia), Omphalia, or Omphalina (Fries 1861; Peck 1872; Peck 1878; Quélet 1886; Murrill 1916). In the 20th century, some authors retained C. cyanophylla in Omphalina (Courtecuisse 1986; Krieglsteiner and Enderle 1987). Singer (1942) transferred A. lilacifolius to Clitocybe (a PRIMA-1MET mw placement rejected by Bigelow, 1970), while Smith (1947) placed it in Mycena based on the dextrinoid hyphae in the stipe and pileus context and viscid stipe. While Singer (1949) [1951] accepted Smith’s classification of A. lilacifolius in Mycena, Kühner (1980) placed A. cyanophyllus in Hygrocybe subg. Gliophorus but his new combination was not validly published.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82:1123–1131CrossRef Linaker C, Sme

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82:1123–1131CrossRef Linaker C, Smedley J (2002) Respiratory illness in agricultural workers. Occup Med (Lond) 52(8):451–459CrossRef Omland Ø (2002) Exposure and respiratory health in farming in temperate zones––a review of the literature. Ann Agric Environ Med 9(2):119–136 Piipari R, Keskinen H (2005) Agents causing occupational asthma in Finland in 1986–2002: cow epithelium bypassed by moulds from moisture-damaged buildings. Clin Exp BGB324 Allergy 35(12):1632–1637CrossRef Prahl P, Weeke B, Löwenstein H (1978) Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis analysis of extract from cow hair and

dander. Allergy 33:241–253CrossRef Prahl P, Bucher D, Plesner T, Weeke B, Löwenstein H (1982) Isolation and partial characterisation of three major allergens in an extract from cow hair and dander. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 67:293–301CrossRef Prior C, CHIR98014 mouse Falk M, Frank A (1996) Early sensitization to farming-related antigens among young farmers: analysis of risk factors. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 111:182–187CrossRef Rautiainen J, Rytkönen M, Virtanen T, Pentikäinen J, Zeiler T, Mäntyjärvi R (1997) BDA20, a major bovine dander allergen characterized at the sequence level, is Bos d 2. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100:251–252CrossRef Reijula K, Patterson R (1994) Occupational allergies in Finland in 1981–91. Allergy

Proc 15(3):163–168CrossRef Spiewak R, Gora A, Horoch Luminespib ic50 A, Dutkiewicz J (2001) Atopy, allergic disease and work-related RAS p21 protein activator 1 symptoms among students of agricultural schools: first results of the Lublin study. Ann Agric Environ Med 8:261–267 Terho EO, Husman K, Vohlonen I, Rautalahti IM, Tukiainen H (1985) Allergy to storage mites or cow dander as a cause of rhinitis among Finnish dairy farmers. Allergy 40(1):23–26CrossRef von Mutius E (2007) Asthma and allergies in rural areas of Europe. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 4(3):212–216CrossRef Wortmann F (1984) Sensibilisierungen gegenüber

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“Introduction Sickness absence due to mental disorders is a major public and occupational health problem, associated with many individual, social and economic implications (Mykletun et al. 2006; Bültmann et al. 2006, 2008; Lerner and Henke 2008; Eaton et al. 2008).

Rats too weak to feed and to stand (corresponding to stage 2) wer

Rats too weak to feed and to stand (corresponding to stage 2) were sacrificed (atmosphere saturated with CO2). The day of euthanasia was recorded and used Mizoribine clinical trial in the survival analysis. All brains were removed and macroscopically examined when possible. It was noted if a tumor was found. Table 2 Rats staging (data not published)   Stage 5 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 2 Stage 1 Motility Normal Normal + but not spontaneous Reduced No Stature Normal Stooped + Stooped ++ Stooped +++ Dying Piloerection No +/- +++ +++ +++ Eyes sharp Redness+ Redness ++

Eye secretions closed Statistics Survival was calculated from the day of the tumor implantation and presented as median and mean ± SE (Standard Error). Increase of life span (ILS) was calculated as follows: (Mean Survival Max – Mean Survival Min)/Mean Survival Min × 100. A Student t-test was performed to compare mean survival in the two groups, using SPSS® software and tests were considered as significant with p values < 0.05. Any rat surviving longer than 120 days was defined as a 'long survivor'. The Kaplan-Meier method was used check details to plot animal survival. see more animals that died during anesthesia

were not included in the survival analysis. Results Efficacy of the brain irradiation The dosimetry planning is reported in figure 3. The 95%-isodose curve covered all the brain and 95% of the volume received 95% of the total dose. In the group A, two animals died during anaesthesia induction, before the tumor cells implantation. The

brain was analyzed macroscopically in 12 animals (six in group A and six in group B). Deterioration of the brain in other animals, due to oedema, prevented analysis. For the 12 animals, a large tumor was observed in their right striatum. By day 35, all rats in group A died. Mean survival of this untreated group was 28.1 days ± 1.3. For group B, mean survival was 59.9 days ± 8.2 (Table 3). The rate of Bacterial neuraminidase long survivors in this group was 20% (2/10 rats). The macroscopic examination of their brain was normal, with no sign of tumor or injection trail; therefore we did not perform a microscopic analysis. Rats treated with WBI showed an increased mean survival span (ILS) of 113% when compared to controls. Survival time was significantly longer compared to the control group (p = 0.01) (Figure 4). Figure 3 Dose distribution in the whole rat brain. Table 3 Descriptive and statistical data from the survival study depending on groups of treatment GROUPS Median of survival (days) Mean time of survival (days) ± SE Mean ILS (%) Long term survivors Maximal time of survival (days) Group A « untreated » (n = 8) 27 28.1 ± 1.3 – 0 35 Group B « WBI » (n = 10) 49.5 59.9 ± 8.2 113 2 120 WBI: Whole brain irradiation ILS: increase in lifetime span Figure 4 Survival curves depending of each group of treatment. Survival times (days) after tumor implantation have been plotted for “”untreated animals”" (Group A) and “”WBI (3 fractions of 6 Gy)”" animals (group B).

2006) Given the major roles of ants and termites in ecosystem fu

2006). Given the major roles of ants and termites in ecosystem function it is likely that functioning and selleck kinase inhibitor resilience of both rain selleck chemicals llc forest and oil palm plantation ecosystems will be affected by the abundance and composition of ant and termite assemblages (Naeem et al. 1994, Bihn et al. 2010). Previous studies have shown that both ant and termite diversity usually decrease following habitat conversion (Jones et al. 2003; Brühl and Eltz 2009). Logging of old growth forest reduces the total number of termite species

by 64 % (14 species cf. 39 species; Donovan et al. 2007), although it is not known how many termite species persist when forest is cleared for oil palm plantation. Ant species richness is also reduced by logging, although to a lesser extent, with 31 % of species being lost (Brühl 2001). Conversion to oil palm plantation has a more extreme effect, with ant species richness GSK3235025 being reduced by 64-80 % (Brühl and Eltz 2009; Fayle et al. 2010). Termites and ants also show shifts in assemblage structure with habitat disturbance. Soil feeding termites are vulnerable to loss of old growth forest, although wood feeders may have more species in mature regenerating

forest (Eggleton et al. 1997). Invasive and generalist species dominate ant assemblages in oil palm plantation (Brühl et al. 2003; Fayle et al. 2010). We know of no studies that have either, (a) sampled ants and termites PtdIns(3,4)P2 simultaneously across a forest disturbance gradient or, (b) considered termite community composition in oil palm plantation. Here we assess the co-variation in functional and feeding group composition of ants and termites along a habitat disturbance gradient comprising sites in old growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation converted from logged forest, in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Methods Study site All sampling was conducted in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, at an average of 450 m asl. Survey

habitats were: old growth lowland dipterocarp rain forest (OG) in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area (4°49′N, 116°54′E); twice-logged rain forest (LF); and oil palm plantation (OP) managed by Benta Wawasan (a subsidiary company of the state government body, Yayasan Sabah) (4°43′N, 117°35′E). Old growth forest survey points at Maliau were in forest that has never been logged commercially, although half of the survey points were in forest that has been lightly logged once. Stand basal area in this lightly-logged area remains similar to undisturbed sites (Hamzah Tangki, unpublished data) and substantially different from the commercially logged forest (Ewers et al. 2011). Tree communities were deemed not to have changed significantly (Ewers et al. 2011). Logged forest survey points were in forest that has been selectively logged twice: once during the 1970s and again from the late 1990s-2000s.