“OBJECTIVE: An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate


“OBJECTIVE: An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the effect of curcumin, lycopene, and irradiation upon oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Curcumin and lycopene were administrated at doses of 3, 4.25, 5.50, and 6.75 mu M in PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cultures irradiated with different doses (1, 2.5, and 5 Gy), followed by evaluation of the effects upon cell viability, apoptosis, and migration after 24, 48, and 72 Selleck PF477736 h of incubation.

RESULTS: The application of curcumin or lycopene to the tumor cells during 24, 48, and 72 h without irradiation exerted an inhibitor effect upon cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. The maximum reduction in cell viability and the peak apoptotic

effect was recorded with the 5.50 and 6.75 mu M doses, for both curcumin and lycopene. Likewise, curcumin and lycopene exerted a synergic effect upon both variables on applying irradiation. Lastly, the 5.50 and 6.75 mu M drug doses, together with 5 Gy of irradiation, yielded the greatest

decrease in cell migration capacity with both curcumin and lycopene.

CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin and lycopene increase cytotoxic activity in the PE/CA-PJ15 cell line and reduce cell migration capacity, GSK126 mechanism while the combination of curcumin or lycopene with irradiation exerts a synergic effect.”
“Our search for biologically active marine natural products led to the isolation of two new ceramides, iotrochotamide I (1) and iotrochotamide DAPT II (2), together with three known 6-bromoindole alkaloids (6-bromo-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (3), 6-bromo-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (4), and 6-bromo-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (5)) from the sponge Iotrochota purpurea collected in Indonesia. The structure elucidation of these compounds was secured by spectroscopic methods (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC), accurate mass measurements (ESI, EI and GS-MS) as well as comparison with known compounds.”
“The Kidd blood group system consists of three common phenotypes: Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+) and Jk(a+b+), and one rare phenotype, Jk(a-b-). Jk(a)/Jk(b) polymorphism is associated with c.838G>A (p.Asp280Asn) in exon 9 of the

JK (SLC14A1) gene, and the corresponding alleles are named JK*01 and JK*02. The rare phenotype Jk(a-b-) was first found in a Filipina of Spanish and Chinese ancestry, and to date, several JK null alleles responsible for the Jk(a-b-) phenotype have been reported. We report seven novel JK null alleles, 4 with a JK*01 background and 3 with a JK*02 background, identified from Jk(a-b-) Japanese.”
“Two new metabolites, pyrenocine J (1) and pyrenochaetic acid D (2), together with two known metabolites, pyrenocine A (3) and pyrenochaetic acid A (4), were isolated from a soil fungus, Curvularia affinis strain HS-FG-196. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed cytotoxic activity against the human hepatic cancer cell line HepG2 with an IC50 value of 28.5 mu g/ml.

0001) The ROC curve analysis for prediction of poor ovarian resp

0001). The ROC curve analysis for prediction of poor ovarian response, a parts per thousand currency sign3 retrieved oocytes,

showed that the optimum cut-off level was < 1.0 ng/mL for AMH. The lower AMH group (AMH < 1.0 ng/ml) showed less chance of undergoing embryo transfer than the higher AMH group (AMH a parts per thousand yen1.0 ng/ml). There was no difference in pregnancy rate between the two groups. Five out of 12 pregnant women exhibited AMH levels of less than 0.4 ng/ml.

Assessment of serum AMH concentration in older patients is useful for the prediction of oocytes numbers which may be obtained in IVF. A cut-off level of 1.0 ng/ml AMH can be used to predict poor ovarian P505-15 inhibitor response. This cut-off level of AMH of 1.0 ng/ml might be useful to predict whether patients could have an embryo transfer, but had no power to predict achieving pregnancy. On the other hand, our data also showed that patients over age 40 with extreme low levels of AMH still had a chance of pregnancy.”
“Aim:

To report U0126 cost the clinical merits and usefulness of minilaparotomy hysterectomy in comparison to the traditional abdominal approach.

Material and Methods:

A comparative study to review perioperative

and postoperative outcomes and complications was conducted in 98 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy through Pfannenstiel incision for benign gynecological disease or pre-invasive pathology. Fifty of these patients (Group I) underwent hysterectomy by minilaparotomy approach (< 5 cm incision) and 48 patients (Group selleck kinase inhibitor II) had standard/conventional methodology (> 6 cm incision).

Results:

Though there were no statistically significant differences between the patients’ profile as well as the size and weight of the removed uterus in the two

groups, the mean operating time was 41.3 min in Group I and 77.5 min in Group II (P < 0.01) and the mean postoperative hospital stay of 3.1 days in Group I was significantly lower than in Group II patients (5.4 days), P < 0.01. There was no major complication or mortality in either of the groups and the composite morbidity encountered was 4% versus 33.33% in Groups I and II, respectively. Two of the patients in Group II required blood transfusion whereas none of the patients in Group I had estimated blood loss over 500 mL.

Conclusion:

Minilaparotomy hysterectomy through < 5 cm Pfannenstiel incision provides an appealing, effective, expeditious, minimal access and less invasive cost-effective option/alternative to the traditional abdominal approach obviating the need for any additional expensive equipment and, above all, improves upon the perioperative outcome, notwithstanding, whatsoever, on the quality of surgery.”
“The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by tightly connected cerebrovascular endothelial cells, but its normal function also depends on paracrine interactions between the brain endothelium and closely located glia.

Recently, we examined energy dissipation in a new class of cantil

Recently, we examined energy dissipation in a new class of cantilever device that embeds a microfluidic channel in its interior-the fundamental mode of vibration only was considered. Due to its importance in practice, we examine the effect of mode number on energy dissipation in these microfluidic beam resonators. Interestingly, and in contrast to other cantilever devices, we find that the quality factor typically decreases with increasing mode number. We explore the underlying physical mechanisms leading to this counterintuitive

behavior, and provide a detailed comparison to experimental measurements for which good agreement is found. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3514100]“
“Objectives. INCB024360 Severe dental malocclusion resulting from mandibular advancement devices (MADs) for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is extremely rare. Reporting of such situations is therefore useful for clinicians managing OSAS.

Study design. We report the unusual cases of 4 patients who developed a severe circular dental open bite related to the use of a MAD. These bite changes were related to molar extrusion in two patients, whereas in the other two patients no obvious etiology was found.

Results. In all patients, the MAD was immediately discontinued as early as the malocclusion was detected and continuous positive airway pressure proposed.

Conclusion. Mandibular advancement devices may

be associated with a severe dental malocclusion. Failure to recognize and promptly treat this complication may lead to irreversible dentoskeletal changes. Therefore, follow-up to survey dental occlusion SNX-5422 nmr is mandatory in all patients wearing a MAD. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e28-e32)”
“The electrorheological fluid

composed of starch particles and silicone oil/transformer oil was dispersed into 107 silicone rubber, and then two types of electric elastomers were prepared in the absence and presence of EPZ004777 supplier a curing electric field, respectively. The storage modules were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis with the round disk compression clamp. The results indicate that the storage modulus sensitivity of electric elastomers composed of pure transformer oil is the highest, that of electric elastomers composed of pure silicone oil takes second place, and that of electric elastomers composed of mixture oil is the smallest. For the given starch concentration, the storage modulus sensitivity attains a maximum value of 3.88 when the mass ratio between the transformer oil and 107 silicone rubber is 1. For the given mass ratio of 1, the effects of starch concentration and the presence or absence of the curing electric field on the storage modulus of electric elastomers were studied. When the starch concentration is 5 wt %, the storage modulus of the elastomer without the electric field (denoted as A-elastomer) is 20.


“To elucidate the time course of neuronal cell death after


“To elucidate the time course of neuronal cell death after the clinical criteria for brain death are met, the authors reviewed FK866 cost serial changes of serum neuron-specific enolase levels in 3 children (age range, 3-15 years) clinically diagnosed as brain dead due to cardiopulmonary arrest. All patients survived for more than 2 months after brain death. Children with brain death had higher peak neuron-specific enolase values (1069-2849 ng/mL) than did 3 control children (256-1800 ng/mL)

who did not become brain dead but had poor neurological outcome (1 death, 2 vegetative state) after cardiopulmonary arrest. A major finding is that children with brain death showed persistent elevation of neuron-specific enolase at 4 weeks (> 400 ng/mL) and 8 weeks (> 50 ng/mL) after cardiopulmonary arrest, in comparison with 2 surviving

patients without brain death (< 50 ng/mL at 4 weeks). This prolonged elevation of neuron-specific enolase suggests that total brain YH25448 ic50 necrosis might not be present at the time of clinical diagnosis of brain death.”
“Purpose: To assess patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) with respect to transcapsular collateral veins, the communication between these veins and ectopic varices, and the cause of PVT.

Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review committees, and written informed consent was obtained. From November 2003 to March 2008, 145 consecutive patients with chronic PVT due to a variety of causes were assessed for transcapsular collaterals and ectopic varices with ultrasonography (US). Analysis of contingency tables was performed with the Fisher exact test.

Results: Transcapsular collaterals were detected in 15 (10.3%) of 145 patients with chronic PVT. They were restricted to patients with a history of hepatobilary surgery, severe pancreatitis, or abdominal surgery (n Sapanisertib solubility dmso = 21) and were not detected in patients with liver cirrhosis,

systemic coagulopathy, extrahepatic malignancy, idiopathic PVT, chronic pancreatitis, or infectious or inflammatory diseases (n = 124) (P < .001). Ectopic varices were infrequent in 70 patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 2, 3%) but were common in 14 patients with PVT after hepatobiliary surgery (n = 9, 64 %) (P < .001, odds ratio = 21.4). Direct communication between transcapsular collaterals and ectopic varices was visible in all nine patients in this cohort. In eight of these patients, ectopic varices were found to be the bleeding source in gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Conclusion: Transcapsular collaterals frequently occur in patients with chronic PVT due to hepatobilary surgery or necrotizing pancreatitis. They are associated with ectopic varices; therefore, awareness of transcapsular collaterals in this patient subgroup will help to localize ectopic varices as potential bleeding source.

C-reactive protein level was elevated (197 mg/L; normal <5 mg/

C-reactive protein level was elevated (197 mg/L; normal <5 mg/L) and the white blood cell count was normal (7 x 10(9)/L; normal 4-10 x 10(9)/L). A computerized tomography (CT) showed a left psoas-based retroperitoneal abscess. Treatment consisted of open debridement, drainage and empirical antibiotic therapy. Intraoperative cultures yielded M. hominis after 7 days incubation. Antibiotic therapy was adapted and discontinued after 2 months. The patient had failed to mention earlier that she had been suffering

from abnormal vaginal discharge for some time and was using an intrauterine selleck contraceptive device.

Results At 1.5-year follow-up, review confirmed healing of the infection with biological normalization

without residual collection, radiolucent lines or osteolysis around the prosthesis at radiographs, CT and MRI.

Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis can be involved as an extragenital pathogen in musculoskeletal infections. Because its buy LY2228820 culture and identification are difficult, special media and real-time PCR are required in case of postoperative deep wound infection after anterior lumbar spine surgery, especially in the case of previous genitourinary infections, to decrease the delay in diagnosis and treatment.”
“Background Spinal melanocytoma is one of the most infrequent space-occupying lesions of the central nervous system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bifocal intradural melanocytoma of heterogenous pathological grade to date.

Case description We report AZD1208 the case of a 43-year old patient with primary bifocal melanocytoma, clinically and radiologically resembling benign schwannoma. The patient presented

with myeloradiculopathy of the left C3 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper spine revealed two space-occupying lesions with paraspinal extension, initially diagnosed as neurofibroma. Definitive histopathological classification of both lesions was melanocytoma. Both tumours were only partially removed due to adherence to surrounding structures. The patient underwent stereotactic external beam irradiation (EBR). Follow-up at 1 year after surgery revealed no recurrence and the patient remained free of symptoms. The clinical, radiological and pathological features of this rare tumour entity are presented and the available literature is reviewed.

Conclusions Intradural melanocytoma, although exceedingly rare, requires a thorough work-up to exclude malignant melanoma. With only two previous reports of multifocal melanocytoma published in the literature, standard therapy has not yet been established and complete surgical removal remains the modality of choice. Patients should be closely monitored to detect local recurrence or malignant degeneration. EBR may be considered in cases where total excision is not achievable and reduces risk of local recurrences.

This review aims to summarize the major approaches and findings o

This review aims to summarize the major approaches and findings of receptor selleckchem proteomics. Isolation and characterization of receptor complexes from cells has become common using the methods of immunoaffinity-, ligand, and tag-based chromatography followed by MS for the analysis of enriched receptor preparations. In addition, tools such as stable isotope labeling have contributed to understanding quantitative properties and PTMs to receptors

and their interacting proteins. As data from studies on receptor-protein interactions, considerably expands, complementary approaches such as bioinformatics and computational biology will undoubtedly play a significant role in defining cellular and network functions for various types of receptor complexes. Findings from receptor proteomics may also shed light

on the mechanism of action for pharmacological drugs and can be of value in understanding molecular pathologies of disease states.”
“Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleiotropic hormone-like protein and a major metabolic regulator. However, several key aspects of FGF21 biology remain poorly understood. Indeed, the list of controversies in the FGF21 field spans a variety of topics, from basic matters such as the anatomic distribution of FGF21 expression and the molecular click here composition of the FGF21 receptor, to the ultimate question of therapeutic relevance of FGF21-dependent pathways in humans. In this paper, we focus on current challenges in the field in an attempt to provide a balanced overview of FGF21 biology and guide future research into this exciting metabolic target.”
“Developing bone consists of epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis. The secondary ossification centre (SOC) appears and grows within the selleck screening library epiphysis, involving two histological stages. Firstly, cartilage canals appear; they carry hypertrophy factors towards the central area of the epiphysis. Canal growth and expansion is modulated by stress on the epiphysis. Secondly, the diffusion of hypertrophy factors

causes SOC growth. Hypertrophy is regulated by biological and mechanical factors present within the epiphysis. The finite element method has been used for solving a coupled system of differential equations for modelling these histological stages of epiphyseal development. Cartilage canal spatial-temporal growth patterns were obtained as well as the SOC formation pattern. This model qualitatively agreed with experimental results reported by other authors. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To address the need for the development of bioengineered replacement of a nerve graft, a novel two component fibrin glue conduit was combined with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and immuno-supressive treatment with cyclosporine A. The effects of MSC on axonal regeneration in the conduit and reaction of activated macrophages were investigated using sciatic nerve injury model.

Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may b

Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.”
“BACKGROUND: The use of bone morphogenetic proteins for fusion augmentation in spine surgery has increased dramatically in recent years. Information is continually emerging regarding the effectiveness and safety profile of these compounds.

OBJECTIVE: We have noted an increased incidence in sterile seroma formation and painful edema after the I-BET151 supplier use of recombinant

human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) for posterolateral lumbar fusion. We present a retrospective review to determine the incidence of seroma formation and to discuss its clinical implications.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the operative reports of patients who underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with the addition of rhBMP-2.

We identified all patients who required surgical exploration of a postoperative sterile seroma. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients who underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion with rhBMP-2, 6 (4.6%) were returned to the operating room for exploration of a sterile seroma. The total amount of rhBMP-2 delivered to the posterolateral space per patient was 2.1 to 14.7 mg (mean, 8.4 mg per patient). The patients were returned to the operating room 5 to 13 days (mean, 7.7 days) after their initial surgery, and infection was ruled out in all cases by intraoperative cultures.

CONCLUSION: check details There seems to be an increased incidence of formation of sterile seroma and painful edema in the lumbar region after posterolateral fusion with rhBMP-2. IPI-549 This report, along with other series highlighting the potential complications of bone morphogenetic proteins, suggests that more caution should be used when these compounds are used. Further studies are required to better define the risks and benefits of using bone morphogenetic proteins for spine surgery.”
“Epidemiologic and occupational studies demonstrated

that ambient particulate matter (PM) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) exert deleterious effects on human cardiopulmonary health, including exacerbation of pre-existing lung disease and development of respiratory infections. The effects of ambient PM on lung cell responsiveness are poorly defined. Human alveolar macrophages (AM) were exposed to SRM 1649 (Washington, DC, urban dust; UD), SRM 2975 (forklift diesel exhaust particles; DEP), and fine or coarse ambient PM collected in Chapel Hill, NC, during the late fall (November) and early summer (June) of 2001-2002. AM were subsequently incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or calcium ionophore A23817 for 6 or 24 h after PM exposure. UD and DEP markedly suppressed [image omitted] release 24 h post-PM exposure.

This randomised controlled trial, done in 190 hospitals in 23 cou

This randomised controlled trial, done in 190 hospitals in 23 countries, was designed to investigate the effects of perioperative beta blockers.

Methods We randomly OTX015 purchase assigned 8351 patients with, or at risk of, atherosclerotic disease who were undergoing non-cardiac surgery to receive extended-release metoprolol succinate (n=4174) or placebo (n=4177), by a computerised randomisation phone service. Study treatment was started 2-4 h before surgery and continued for 30 days. Patients, health-care providers, data collectors, and outcome adjudicators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal

myocardial infarction, and non-fatal cardiac selleckchem arrest. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number

NCT00182039.

Findings All 8351 patients were included in analyses; 8331 (99.8%) patients completed the 30-day follow-up. Fewer patients in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group reached the primary endpoint (244 [5.8%] patients in the metoprolol group vs 290 [6.9%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio 0 . 84, 95% CI 0 . 70-0.99; p=0.0399). Fewer patients in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group had a myocardial infarction (176 [4.2%] vs 239 [5.7%] patients; 0 .73, 0.60-0.89; p=0. 0017). However, there were more deaths in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group (129 [3 . 1%] vs 97 [2.3%] patients; 1 . 33, 1.03-1.74; p=0.0317). More patients in the metoprolol group than in the placebo group had a stroke (41 [1 . 0%] vs 19 [0.5%] patients; 2.17, 1.26-3.74; p=0.0053).

Interpretation Our results highlight

the risk in assuming a perioperative beta-blocker regimen has benefit without substantial harm, and the importance and need for large randomised trials in the perioperative setting. Patients are unlikely to accept the risks associated with perioperative extended-release metoprolol.

Funding Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Commonwealth Government of Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council; Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Ministerio find more de Sanidad y Consumo), Spain; British Heart Foundation; AstraZeneca.”
“Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive technique for monitoring electrical activity and has good time resolution. Combining these advantages of EEG with dipole-tracing analysis incorporating a realistic three-layer head model (scalp-skull-brain head model; SSB/DT) allows for the detection of dipoles in the millisecond range and investigation of the processing of cognitive function and movement execution. In this study, we constructed a scalp-skull-brain head model from Montreal Neurological Institute standard brain images and detected dipole localizations in the millisecond range from grand-averaged negative slope (NS) to motor potentials during a simple pinching movement.

All rights reserved “
“To evaluate the susceptibility to mic

All rights reserved.”
“To evaluate the susceptibility to microbial contamination that occurs during simulated handling of protective devices for the preparation of cytotoxic drug solutions.

Four devices, i.e. Chemoprotect spike, Clave connector, PhaSeal and Securmix were challenged with low and high inocula of micro-organisms. The cells, transferred to the connected vials during repeated manipulations of the devices were counted by means of solid-phase cytometry. Of the four devices, PhaSeal afforded the lowest transfer of micro-organisms.

Secondly, the efficiency of procedures for the disinfection of an artificially contaminated rubber stopper was compared prior to connection of the vial to the PhaSeal device. Spraying or swabbing alone was Z-VAD-FMK inadequate, as opposed to a combination of spraying [0.5% or

2.0% (w/v) chlorhexidine Sotrastaurin price in isopropanol] and swabbing [70% (v/v) isopropanol].

Although Phaseal afforded the lowest transfer of micro-organisms, adequate disinfection of the vial prior to connection remains required.

Unlike aspects of operator protection, which are well documented, the microbiological safety of protective devices for the preparation of cytotoxic drugs has not been addressed in the literature. This study estimates the susceptibility to microbial contamination during handling of four commonly used devices.”
“NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are key glutamatergic receptors in the CNS. Their permeability to Ca(2+) and their voltage-dependent Mg(2+) block make them essential for synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, rhythmogenesis, gene expression and excitotoxicity.

One very peculiar property is that their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist like glycine or D-serine. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that D-serine, rather than glycine as originally https://www.selleck.cn/products/ly2090314.html thought, is the endogenous ligand for NMDARs in many brain structures. D-serine is synthesized mainly in glial cells and it is released upon activation of glutamate receptors. Its concentration in the synaptic cleft controls the number of NMDAR available for activation by glutamate. Consequently, the glial environment of neurons has a critical impact on the direction and magnitude of NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to demonstrate that fish-processing by-products could be used as sole raw material to sustain the growth of Staphylococcus xylosus for lipase production.

Bacterial growth was tested on supernatants generated by boiling (100 degrees C for 20 min) of tuna, sardine, cuttlefish and shrimp by-products from fish processing industries. Among all samples tested, only supernatants generated from shrimp and cuttlefish by-products sustained the growth of S. xylosus. Shrimp-based medium gave the highest growth (A(600) = 22) after 22 h of culture and exhibited the maximum lipase activity (28 U ml(-1)).

Methods and Results:

We

tested anti-HRV activi

Methods and Results:

We

tested anti-HRV activity of O7G using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method, which exhibited broad-spectrum SRT2104 anti-HRVs activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) ranging from 0 center dot 58 to 8 center dot 80 mu g ml-1. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC(50)) of O7G is more than 100 mu g ml-1, and the derived therapeutic indices are more than 12. Ribavirin didn’t possess antiviral activity against HRV15, HRV3 and HRV5, but exhibited weak antiviral activity against HRV2 and HRV3, and showed strong anti-HRV6 and -14 activities.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that O7G is a novel drug class with broad spectrum antiviral activity against HRV species A (HRV1B, HRV2, HRV15 and HRV40) and species B (HRV3, HRV6 and HRV14), as well as pleconaril-resistant virus (HRV5).

Significance and Impact of the Study:

Therefore,

these findings provide important information for the utilization of Q7G promising broad spectrum for human rhinovirus treatment.”
“It is well established that the hyperdense middle cerebral buy Bindarit artery sign is a specific marker for early ischemia in anterior circulation. However, little is known about the hyperdense basilar artery sign (HDBA) in posterior circulation. Our aim was to determine whether the HDBA sign has utility in early diagnosis of acute posterior circulation stroke and prediction of short-term outcome.

Three-blinded readers examined unenhanced computed tomography scans for the HDBA sign, and materials were classified into two groups according to this sign. Vascular risk factors, admission and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, short-term outcome, and radiological findings between the two groups were compared.

One hundred and twenty-six

cases of acute posterior circulation stroke (PCS) were included in the those study. No statistically significant differences were found in risk factors of ischemic stroke, except atrial fibrillation (P = 0.025). Admission and discharge NIHSS scores for the positive HDBA group were significantly higher than scores for the negative HDBA group (P = 0.001, 0.002, respectively). The infarction territory for the positive HDBA group was mainly multi-region in nature (51.6%, P < 0.001), while the negative HDBA group showed mainly middle territory infarction. Significant independent predictors of short-term outcome included the HDBA sign (P < 0.001) and admission NIHSS scores (P < 0.001).

Approximately half of the HDBA patients showed multi-region infarction and a serious neurological symptom. Based on our results, this sign might not only be helpful in early diagnosis of acute PCS but also be able to correlate with a poor short-term outcome.”
“Aims:

Our study was conducted to evaluate the potent protective effects of oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus strains against influenza virus (Flu) infection in a mouse model.