Ritonavir also may induce the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C

Ritonavir also may induce the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and glucuronosyl transferase.126 Two small studies demonstrated that the co-administration of fluconazole produced little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of ritonavir.123,124

https://www.selleckchem.com/products/PD-0332991.html Similarly, voriconazole (400 mg day−1) had no apparent effect on steady-state high-dose (800 mg day−1) ritonavir exposure.126 These findings are not surprising given that fluconazole or voriconazole are not potent CYP3A4 inhibitors and the studies employed a high dose of ritonavir (800–1200 mg day−1) that now is rarely used. In addition, the studies involving fluconazole employed a relatively low fluconazole dose (200 mg day−1).123,124 In a small study, fluconazole increased the AUC (50%) and Cmax (57%)

of saquinavir administered as a hard gel-cap. However, these changes were not deemed clinically significant.124 The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is primarily metabolised by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and undergoes subsequent glucuronidation. Efavirenz inhibits CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 at concentrations that are achieved with standard dosing.127 In addition, efavirenz induces CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner.128 Not surprisingly, a randomised placebo-controlled interaction study Volasertib price in healthy male volunteers demonstrated that co-administration of voriconazole (400 mg daily in divided) and efavirenz (400 mg daily) produced moderate increases in efavirenz exposure (43%) and maximum serum concentrations (37%).129 Rutecarpine A study in healthy volunteers using a higher voriconazole dose (800 mg daily in divided doses) and a lower efavirenz (300 mg daily) produced little or no change in efavirenz pharmacokinetic parameters.130 This mild to moderate interaction is likely caused by voriconazole inhibition of CYP3A4. However, as discussed below, efavirenz produced more significant changes in voriconazole

disposition.129,130 Interactions involving azoles and warfarin.  Warfarin is a racemic compound. The S enantiomer of warfarin (S-warfarin) is metabolised by CYP2C9 and accounts for the pharmacological activity of warfarin. Itraconazole inhibits only CYP3A4, but a case report indicates that it may interact with warfarin.131 However, this finding has not been evaluated in a larger, more rigorous analysis. Fluconazole interacts with warfarin in a highly predictable manner. This azole inhibits S-warfarin metabolism approximately 70%, which results in a 38% increase in the international normalised ratio (INR) in patients who were previously stabilised on warfarin.132 The interaction between fluconazole and warfarin will occur even if the fluconazole dose is reduced by 50%. Therefore, in practice, this combination increases the risk of significant bleeding and should be avoided if possible.133 If the two drugs are required to be used concomitantly, the INR must be closely monitored and the warfarin dose will need to be adjusted accordingly.

Functional plasticity in DCs allows these cells to present antige

Functional plasticity in DCs allows these cells to present antigen in an immunogenic or tolerogenic fashion, largely contingent on environmental factors [[39]]. Among those, costimulatory and coinhibitory interactions between DCs and T cells are pivotal in tipping the balance between immunity and tolerance in favor of either outcome. Originally thought selleckchem to selectively deliver inhibitory signals to T cells when engaged by CD80/CD86 molecules

on DCs, the surface T-cell receptor CTLA-4 (widely expressed by Treg cells) was later shown to behave as an activating ligand itself for CD80/CD86 “receptors” capable of transduction, resulting in intracellular signaling events. Through an as-yet-unidentified signaling cascade, DCs release type I and type II IFNs (depending on DC subsets) that act in an autocrine and paracrine fashion to induce strong IDO expression and function [[31]]. This might exemplify a mechanism whereby natural or induced Treg cells became engaged in controlling acute hyperinflammatory or allergic reactions in local tissue microenvironments [[40]]. Kynurenine-dependent, AhR-driven T-cell differentiation would then contribute to expand the pool of Treg cells [[6]]. However,

it became soon apparent that, in the long-term control of immune homeostasis and tolerance to self, IDO relies on different regulatory stimuli and cytokines, providing a basal function amenable to regulation by abrupt environmental changes [[41]]. The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based

inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) are known to signal via recruitment and activation of Src homology 2 domain phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), SHP-2, Inhibitor Library molecular weight and inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase D (SHIP), as shown in Fig. 1. A prototypic ITIM has the I/V/L/SxYxxL/V/F Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase sequence, where x denotes any amino acid and Y the phosphorylable tyrosine [[42, 43]]. In inflammation, phosphorylated ITIMs in IDO interact with suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), resulting in proteasomal degradation of the enzyme [[30, 44]]. Two ITIMs are present in mouse and human IDOs, which, in the presence of proinflammatory IL-6, lead to SOCS3-dependent proteasomal degradation of the enzyme. This has been considered to be an important mechanism whereby the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 interrupts tolerance in several acute responses to danger signals [[45]]. In contrast, in a TGF-β–dominated environment and in the absence of IL-6, Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of IDO activates a variety of downstream signaling effectors — including SHPs and noncanonical NF-κB — that further sustain TGF-β production, production of type I IFNs, and favor a bias of the pDCs toward a regulatory phenotype [[46-48]]. By means of this mechanism [[15, 49]], IDO enhances its own expression and stably tips the balance between canonical (i.e. proinflammatory) and noncanonical (antiinflammatory) NF-κB activation in favor of the latter [[50]].

After three

After three Alpelisib purchase 5-min washes in PBS, thin sections were exposed (2–4 h) to primary antibody (Table 1) diluted in 10% goat serum/PBS. Unbound primary antibody was removed with three 5-min washes in PBS and then exposed (2 h) to fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody, all diluted 1 : 200 in 10% goat serum/0·1% Triton-X 100/PBS. After three 5-min washes in PBS, the slides were coverslipped

using ProLong® Gold antifade mounting media with DAPI (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR, USA). DAPI staining aided in follicle localization, especially in the presence of a greatly expanded red pup postinfection. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) controls for these experiments included substitution of primary or secondary antibodies with antibody diluent,

and substitution of primary antibodies with isotype-matched irrelevant antibodies. Dual-labelling experiments were performed by co-incubation of primary antibodies followed by co-incubation of selective secondary antibodies. Nonspecific staining and cross-reactions between secondary antibodies or between a primary antibody and nonrelevant secondary antibody were not observed. Note: Attempts were made to localize CD8+ cells by IHC (primary antibody = BAQ111a, isotype = IgM; VMRD, Inc., find more Pullman, WA, USA). CD8 localization was precluded, however, by significant background mediated by anti-IgM secondary antibody. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) slides were viewed and photographed using an Axio Imager M1 microscope (Carl Zeiss Microimaging, Thornwood, NY, USA) equipped with an LED illuminator for bright field microscopy and an X-Cite 120 Fl Illuminating system (EXFO Photonic Solutions, Mississauga, ON, Canada) for epi-fluorescence microscopy. Digital images were captured using an AxioCam MRc5 digital camera connected to a desktop computer running AxioVision (version 4.7.1.0)

and prepared for presentation using Photoshop Elements (version 4.0; Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). Figure images are representative, and variation dipyridamole within or between time points (dpi) is noted in the Results section. In particular, the term ‘progressive’ is used to indicate appreciation of an ordered change over time. Measurements of the splenic marginal zone included the region extending from its follicle junction (indicated in figures by a dashed curved line) to a width of ∼100 μm, and measurements of the red pulp included regions furthest away from neighbouring white pulp. IHC measurements must be considered approximate as uncontrolled changes in tissue dimensions are expected to have occurred during euthanasia and preparation of thin frozen sections. All data were tabulated in Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and are reported as mean ± standard error. Splenic volume (MRI) and differential cell count data were analysed for significant (P < 0·05) postinfection increases by paired T-test (SAS® for Windows 9.2; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).

65–67 In an epidemiological study, Rohrmann et al reported that

65–67 In an epidemiological study, Rohrmann et al. reported that men with metabolic syndrome had an increased risk of nocturia, incomplete bladder emptying, weak stream

and hesitancy.68 Yu et al. indicated that hyperlipidemia is associated with OAB in Taiwanese women.69 Furthermore, obesity alone or combing with diabetes can precipitate Selleck HSP inhibitor lower urinary tract dysfunction, such as OAB and stress urinary incontinence in women.70 The impact of diabetes on the lower urinary tract is multifactorial, including osmolarity diuresis effect, metabolic perturbation, and neuropathy. Diabetes may cause dysfunctions of smooth muscle, urothelium and neuronal components of the bladder.71,72 In a survey of 1359 consecutive DM subjects, 22.5% reported having OAB with 11.7% reporting OAB dry and 10.8% with OAB wet.73 The male gender (24.8%) was more commonly associated with OAB than female gender (20.1%) in DM population with a mean age of 60 years.73 Diabetic men had a larger prostate than the non-diabetic group.74 Men aged 60 years or above had a high prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia, which often caused BOO and contributed to the presence OAB. The impact of diabetes on bladder function was observed in a model of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. In the early stage of diabetic bladder dysfunction, remodeling of the bladder wall occurs.75,76The

diuresis and metabolic effects of diabetes result in detrusor hypertrophy and mechanical property changes, which Beta adrenergic receptor kinase cause a decrease in bladder voiding efficiency. The early stage of diabetic vesical neuropathy also contributes to the development of detrusor

overactivity. Increased expression this website of M2 and M3 receptors in uroepithelium and bladder muscle layer were observed in 2-week-old streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.77,78 However, in patients with classic diabetic cystopathy, decreased bladder sensation and urodynamic detrusor underactivity are seen and may explain why some patients with diabetic bladder dysfunction can have reduced urgency. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by fructose feeding, Tong et al. reported that upregulation of M2,3-muscarinic receptors in the bladder were associated with DO.79 The metabolic perturbations induced by long-term fructose feeding also contributed to DO and OAB symptoms, including proinflammation, increased oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, an increase of apoptosis in the detrusor muscle, and detrusor hypertrophy.80,81 In a spontaneously hypertensive and hyperlipidemic rat model, Nobe et al. also indicated decreased Rho kinase and protein kinase activities, which weaken detrusor contractility.82 It has been shown that heritable hyperlipidemia can cause reduced bladder capacity, DO and nerve degeneration in a chronic hyperlipidemic rabbit model.83 This observation may explain the increase of OAB symptoms in patients with hyperlipidemia.70 Azadoi et al.

Transplantation is usually associated with catastrophic out-of-po

Transplantation is usually associated with catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure in developing countries. This pushes most patients from economically deprived strata who come for treatment to public hospitals into severe financial crisis. The end result is a family sinking in

to poverty with the loss of the life of a beloved family member who is usually the only bread earner of the family. The research of transplant tolerance using MSC is most relevant for such patients. The infusion of SC including MSC results in to minimization/withdrawal of immunosuppression. GSK3235025 The total cost of transplantation using AD-MSC in Ahmedabad is approximately US$6000. The monthly cost therefore goes down from approximately $2000 to less than $50. This is in addition to the benefit

of minimal/no infections since the patients are on major immunosuppressive medications. In addition, the patient returns to his job and mainstream life instead of a dismal picture of restricted life to prevent exposure to infective onslaught. To conclude, MSC have a promising role in the induction and sustenance of transplant tolerance when infused in liver and thymic circulation see more pre-transplant. “
“Aim:  The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CKD patients. Methods:  A cross-section study of first-degree relatives of CKD patients was conducted between November 2007 and March 2009 in southern China. A total of 1187 first-degree relatives (494 male and 693 female; mean age 41.26 years) of 419 CKD patients (194 male and 225 female; mean age 32.10 years) were reviewed and tested for haematuria, albuminuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate. CKD risk factors, including age, gender, body mass index, hypertension and the causes of index case were also investigated. CKD was diagnosed according to the criteria of the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Results:  The prevalence of CKD in first-degree

relatives of CKD patients was 29.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.1%–32.2%). After adjusting for all the potential confounders, older age, female gender, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hyperuricaemia, Dapagliflozin hypertriglyceridemic, low level of high density lipoproteins, increased body mass index and nephrotoxic medications were independently associated with increased risk of CKD. Furthermore, relatives of index cases with chronic glomerulonephritis were at higher risk haematuria (ORs = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.45–3.10) compared with relatives of index cases with other kinds of renal diseases. Conclusion:  The first-degree relatives of CKD patients are at high risk of CKD, especially those relatives of CKD patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Screening in this high risk population might help to identify early CKD patients and make a proper intervention strategy to prevent the disease from quick progression.

It is technically feasible to add additional VLPs to second-gener

It is technically feasible to add additional VLPs to second-generation HPV vaccines, but there is probably a limit for how large amounts of antigen that can be included in combined vaccines without risking deteriorating responses against the major oncogenic HPV type, HPV16. Table 1 shows the cumulative proportion of the main HPV types present in cervical cancer, estimated for Europe from studies conducted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) [75]. Approximately 52 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur yearly in Europe [76,77]. Thus, with

vaccination with Akt inhibitor a 100% effective HPV16 vaccine, 34 000 incident cases of cervical cancer could be avoided. An HPV16/18 vaccine could potentially avoid 37 000 cases per year (71·5%) and an octavalent vaccine could potentially reduce the incidence with 88%. This simple calculation assumes 17-AAG nmr absence of ‘type replacement’ or cross-protection, which, respectively, should decrease or increase vaccine efficacy. Type replacement – what is meant and is it likely?  There is a theoretical concern

that eradication of some HPV types will cause post-vaccination emergence of disease caused by types not included in the vaccine, ‘type replacement’. Type replacement is a viral population dynamics phenomenon and is defined as elimination of some types causing an increase in incidence of other types. This effect can occur only if two conditions apply: (i) there exists partial competition among different types during natural infection and (ii) the vaccine does not afford cross-protection against types affected by this natural competition [78]. Several epidemiological studies have addressed the question of possible competition between different HPV types for infection. Presence of type-specific

antibodies (a marker of past or present infection) for one HPV type is associated with a strongly increased risk for also being seropositive for other HPV types, even when adjusted for determinants of sexual behaviour. For example, one study found the odds ratio (OR) for being seropositive for HPV16/18/33 Flucloronide to be 2·9 (95% CI: 1·6–5·3) for women seropositive for HPV6/11 compared to those seronegative, even when the risk was adjusted for sexual behaviour and other sexually transmitted infections [79]. This is the opposite effect to that expected if there had been competition between the types. Furthermore, studies of multiple HPV DNA types in the same samples have, in general, not found interactions between types, nor clear examples of types of HPV DNA that are not found together, as would have been expected if there had been competition [80]. If anything, past infection with HPV appears to increase the likelihood that a new infection will be acquired. For example, Mendez et al.

SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in genital mucosa expressed high levels

SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in genital mucosa expressed high levels of CXCR3 and CCR5 relative to expression in peripheral blood. The results presented here demonstrate a significant Belinostat ic50 enrichment of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the genital mucosa of infected female macaques and that inflammatory chemokines and their receptors play a role in directing

cells to these tissues. SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were evaluated in blood, genital mucosa, and secondary lymphoid organs of seven female SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques at necropsy using techniques similar to those previously published by our group.10–13 All the monkeys studied were positive for the Mamu-A*01 class I MHC allele, allowing the use of Gag181–189/Mamu-A*01 tetramers for detection of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells by flow selleck chemicals llc cytometry. SIV-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in lymphocytes isolated from cervical and vaginal mucosae of all seven monkeys

at frequencies between 3- and 30-fold higher than those found in peripheral blood (mean enrichment = 12.7-fold for blood versus vagina or cervix; P = 0.018 blood versus vagina; P < 0.028 blood versus cervix, Wilcoxon signed rank test) (Table I). To determine whether the observed difference in the frequency of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in genital mucosa and blood was specific to tissues of the reproductive tract, lymphocytes isolated from intestinal mucosae, spleen, and lymph nodes of five monkeys infected with wild-type or attenuated SIV were analyzed for Gag tetramer-binding cells. The frequency of tetramer+ lymphocytes was found to be up to 20 times higher in secondary lymphoid and mucosal tissues than in peripheral blood of the same animal (Table I). However, the percentage of SIV-specific cells in these sites was quite similar within each animal, differing by just 1.5- to 3.3-fold. SIV-specific cells were increased

relative to blood in lymph nodes of all six monkeys, with an average fold enrichment of 5.6. In summary, all lymphoid and mucosal tissues examined were enriched in SIV-specific CD8+ T cells relative to peripheral blood. The high frequency of virus-specific CD8+ T cells found in genital mucosal tissues suggested Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase that a method for following these responses over time in living animals would be advantageous for non-human primate vaccine studies. We therefore developed a vaginal biopsy technique that permitted us to isolate a sufficient number of cells to perform serial tetramer analyses at 2–4 week intervals. Ten to 12 individual pinch biopsies were collected from individual animals at one time, yielding up to 3 million cells. Histological analysis of representative specimens demonstrated that the biopsies included tissue from epithelium and lamina propria with some variation among biopsies (data not shown).

The protein concentrations in the cytoplasmic fraction and nuclea

The protein concentrations in the cytoplasmic fraction and nuclear fraction were quantified

by BCA protein assay kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The proteins were denatured with 4× sample loading buffer (100 mm Tris–HCl, pH 6·8, 200 mm dithiothreitol, 4% SDS, 20% glycerol and 0·2% bromophenol blue) at 95° for 5 min. Equal amounts of proteins were resolved in 10% SDS–PAGE and then transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman, Maidstone, UK). The membranes were blocked and then incubated with primary antibodies against iNOS, phospho-JNK, JNK, phospho-p38 MAPK, p38 MAPK, phospho-ERK1/2, VX-809 mw ERK, IκBα, NF-κB p65, actin or lamin B overnight at 4°, followed by incubation with corresponding HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies for 1 hr. The protein bands were visualized using enhanced chemiluminescence solutions (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, Belinostat concentration UK). Statistical analysis was assisted by GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA). Student’s t-test or one-way analysis of variance with Newman–Keuls post-hoc test was adopted when appropriate. P < 0·05 was considered

statistically significant. To investigate whether IL-17A affects NO production in BCG-infected macrophages, we first investigated the effects of various doses of IL-17A on BCG-induced NO production in human MDM. The macrophages were pre-treated Morin Hydrate with recombinant human IL-17A at 5, 25 or 100 ng/ml for 24 hr, followed by BCG infection for

24–72 hr. We observed that human MDM failed to produce substantial amounts of NO in response to BCG infection. The level of NO in BCG-infected macrophages was comparable to that in untreated cells (Table 1). Moreover, the addition of human IL-17A did not augment the production of NO in infected human MDM (Table 1). As human MDM did not produce NO in response to BCG infection, we decided to use RAW264.7 murine macrophages, which readily produce NO upon infection or stimulation,[15] as a model to study the effects of IL-17A on NO production in BCG-infected macrophages. We observed that IL-17A was able to synergistically enhance BCG-induced NO in a dose-dependent manner. The production of NO in macrophages was enhanced by 20%, 43% or 31% when pre-treated with 5 ng/ml, 25 ng/ml or 100 ng/ml of IL-17A, respectively. The IL-17A alone did not induce NO production in macrophages at all doses being tested (Fig. 1a). As IL-17A at 25 ng/ml had the greatest enhancing effect on BCG-induced NO production, we chose to use this concentration of IL-17A in all subsequent experiments. Next, we studied the kinetics of NO production and iNOS expression in BCG-infected macrophages. The macrophages were pre-treated with IL-17A for 24 hr, followed by BCG infection. The culture supernatants were collected at the indicated time-points for determination of NO production.

In this study, 16 genes

In this study, 16 genes AZD6244 clinical trial (six of these contain predicted

signal sequences) that showed significant differences in hybridization intensities between two parent strains were found to co-segregate with their respective eQTLs in F1 progeny. These data support a cis-acting model of regulation for the strain-specific expression of these genes (38). The gene coverage constraint of the cDNA arrays is surmounted by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays. With the completion of the ME49 reference genome, custom oligonucleotide arrays (ToxoGeneChip) have been designed to allow for whole-genome expression profiling and genotyping (39). The array contains at least 11 perfect match probes for each of the approximately 8000 predicted genes providing coverage for most of the genes in the Toxoplasma genome (39). Probes for 260 human and mouse genes that are mostly involved in immune response have also been featured on this array to allow for simultaneous analysis of parasite and host genes that modulate infections. Novel gene discovery and SNP analysis are some new applications that are possible with this microarray. Using these new arrays, Bahl et al. (39) have shown

LY2109761 that nearly half of the predicted genes (3986) are expressed in tachyzoites. In another study, these arrays have been used to profile bradyzoite gene expression among the three main clonotypes of Toxoplasma (40) and provided confirmation for previously suggested strain-dependent differential expression of bradyzoite genes including B-NTPase (41). It also showed that the type I-GT1 strain retains a tachyzoite expression profile under bradyzoite conditions consistent with their decreased tendency to differentiate (39,40). The correlation between parasite replication rate and pathogenesis has been well documented (15,42). However, Selleckchem Paclitaxel the cell division process and its regulatory mechanisms are not entirely understood in T. gondii. A lot of effort has therefore been spent trying to understand the molecular controls and mechanisms that underlie the unique modes of division in the different developmental stages. A significant portion of our current knowledge on the subject

has resulted from forward genetic studies using temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutants (42–46). Identification of essential genes in such conditional mutants has been greatly helped by the fact that the tachyzoite stage, which is the most genetically amenable stage, is haploid and is able to replicate indefinitely in cell culture. Genetic complementation using T. gondii genomic cosmid and cDNA libraries has proven extremely useful for the identification of genes underlying conditional-mutant phenotypes (42,43,47,48). Extensive screening of temperature-sensitive mutants has revealed a complex cell cycle regulatory mechanism involving checkpoints (G1, G1/S, M) and spatial and structural coordination of mitotic events (42,43) that is in many ways analogous to those observed in higher eukaryotes (44).

By this procedure, we isolated epithelial cells that stained posi

By this procedure, we isolated epithelial cells that stained positive for the epithelial antigens Ber-EP4 and cytokeratin and stained negative for CD4, CD45 and vimentin.48 To establish a cell culture system of polarized human uterine, Fallopian tube and endocervical epithelial cells with both apical and basolateral compartments, primary cells were cultured in human extracellular matrix (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ)-coated Falcon cell culture inserts in 24-well culture plates (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). For these experiments, apical and basolateral compartments

contained 300 and 850 μl of complete medium, respectively. In order to keep the culture selleck chemical conditions similar, the same procedure was followed for culturing the squamous ectocervical epithelial cells, which do not polarize. Akt inhibitor The medium was changed every 2 days. The cells were treated with 25 μg/ml of TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C) (Invivogen) for 24 hr, after which apical and basolateral conditioned media

(CM) were collected, centrifuged for 5 min at 10 000 g and stored at −80° until use. Tight junction formation of cultured epithelial cell monolayers was assessed by periodically measuring transepithelial resistance (TER) using an EVOM electrode and Voltohmmeter (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, FL), as described previously.49 TER is a functional measurement of the integrity of tight junctions in an epithelial cell monolayer. The

presence of non-epithelial cells in the culture interferes with the formation of tight junctions and therefore prevents an increase in TER. TER is also an indicator for the purity of the epithelial monolayer. The concentrations of Trappin-2/Elafin in the to apical and basolateral supernatants from primary FRT epithelial cells and CVL from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Duoset kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. This assay measures both Trappin-2 and Elafin. The amounts of Trappin-2/Elafin were measured based on a standard curve after measuring the absorbance at 450 nm on an ELISA reader (Dynex, Chantilly, VA). Real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using a two-step protocol, as described previously.50 Total RNA was isolated from cells using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer’s recommendations (Invitrogen Life Technologies) and purified by elution through RNeasy columns (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Coincident with RNA purification was on-column DNAse digestion using the RNAse-Free DNAse set (Qiagen). For each specimen, 400 ng of total RNA was reverse-transcribed using the iScript complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA), according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, in a 20 μl volume.