69 Future studies will help identify whether this has potential e

69 Future studies will help identify whether this has NVP-BKM120 potential etiologic meaning in depression; also, it is likely that other genetic variations will be identified and investigated in similar fashion. Neuroendocrine systems The potential contribution of dysfunction of the endocrine system to the neurobiology of depression has long been recognized. Most research has focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical axis and, to a lesser degree, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. HPA axis In vulnerable individuals, psychological and physiological stress has long been known to precipitate or worsen depressive episodes. The HPA axis is the primary neuroendocrine system responsible for coordinating

the mammalian stress response, and has thus been a major focus of research into the neurobiology of depression. Its major components include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids; Cortisol is the major glucocorticoid in humans. During the stress response, neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus release CRF into the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. CRF then stimulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical release from the anterior pituitary into the systemic circulation, which in turn stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete Cortisol. Cortisol is responsible for many of the physiological changes associated with the stress response, and also provides negative feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary to decrease synthesis and release of CRF and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ACTH. Quite distinct from the HPA axis is the widespread CNS distribution of CRF and CRF receptors that includes several cortical, subcortical, and brain stem regions. Importantly, these CRF systems modulate the autonomic, immunologic, and behavioral responses to

stress.70 Two main CRF receptor subtypes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have been identified (CRF1 and CRF2) which appear to have differential effects on behaviors related to mood and anxiety. CRF1 receptors have a high affinity for CRF, and are widely distributed in the CNS, and reduced anxiety in animal next models is associated with reduced activity of these receptors. In contrast, CRF2 receptors have a lower affinity for CRF, have a widespread distribution with limited overlap with that of CRF1 receptors, and reduced CRF2 activity has been linked with increased anxiety-like behaviors in animals.70,71 The HPA axis is abnormally active in patients with depression. CSF CRF concentrations are elevated in drug-free depressed patients compared with controls, and CRF mRNA expression and the number of CRF-containing neurons in the PVN are increased in depressed patients.72,73 CRF concentrations are elevated in the frontal cortex of depressed patients, and there is a corresponding reduction in CRF1 receptors in suicide victims in this area.74,75 Further, antidepressants modify CRF activity.

However, an outstanding review article also provides new insight

However, an outstanding review article also provides new insight into the proper

interpretation of the mass of available data. Esophageal cancer management is particularly in need of such a skilled overview as there are many treatment options but little data to provide real clarity about the burdens and benefits of the options under individual clinical circumstances. Jabbour and Thomas are to be congratulated for not only compiling an enormous amount of data, but doing this in a refreshing way that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical provides insight into the proper management of esophageal cancer (1). The stated purpose of this review article is primarily to evaluate the data that applies to radiation therapy in the postoperative management of esophageal cancer. However, the authors comprehensively review the many potential roles of radiation therapy in definitive management of locally advanced esophageal cancer, whether given definitively, preoperatively, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or postoperatively. The controversy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical about adjuvant and

neoadjuvant chemotherapy is addressed. This choice of a comprehensive review of the data contributed greatly to the value of this review article, allowing context to be placed on the data related to postoperative therapy, and in reality to provide a review more comprehensive than the goal implied by the title of the article. There Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are not well done definitive randomized trials to compare the outcome of postoperative therapy against preoperative therapy in esophageal cancer with modern staging and modern treatment techniques. In the United States preoperative therapy is commonly used in studies at major institutions in cooperative groups Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and this appears to have shaped routine clinical practice. The potential value of preoperative therapy is that adjuvant therapy could be started immediately targeting any micro metastatic deposits without allowing time for further growth, and treatment would not be given until diagnosis and staging is firmly PLX4032 assessed. In

addition, prior unless to surgery it is thought that the patient’ s may be better able to tolerate aggressive chemotherapy and radiation as it can start immediately and their physical and nutritional state has not been burden by the need to recover from surgery. On the other hand when therapy is given postoperatively full staging information is available and patients who have more extensive disease discovered at the time of surgery may be spared aggressive treatments and patients with earlier stage of disease than expected may also not require such treatment. The review article has several informative and important tables that provide an overview of the management of esophageal cancer. In particular, table 1 addresses preoperative versus postoperative therapy.

One of the other major questions was: what happens if one allows

One of the other major questions was: what happens if one allows individuals to undergo an extended period of time on placebo (ie, 4 months)? Will this impact response to pharmacotherapy? A second question was: is acute treatment of minor depression sufficient? Will individuals who respond acutely require continuation treatment, as is the case with major depressive disorder? Additionally, what is the course of untreated minor depression for individuals who participate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in a trial? Are we placing these people at an increased risk or burden by their continued presence in the trial while

on placebo? In order to gather pilot data to begin to answer these questions, individuals who completed the initial 12 weeks of the trial entered a continuation phase. The randomization of individuals Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for the acute and continuation phase of the trial were performed at the initial point of randomization,

rather than a second re-randomization, after completion of the acute trial. Therefore, individuals in this trial were randomized both to an acute phase and maintenance treatment with either fluoxetine or placebo and to one of four Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical continuation phase conditions: fluoxetine-fluoxetine, fluoxetine-placebo, placebo-placebo, or placebo-fluoxetine. Analysis of the continuation phase of the study Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was a find more priori specified to be exploratory, because we knew that sizes of the cells would not

be sufficient to answer these questions. There were several features during the analysis plan that were unique. First was the realization that minor depression was most likely a heterogeneous syndrome. Therefore, we acknowledged the need to investigate the relationship between minor depression and a previous history of major Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depressive disorder and dysthymia, and also the relationship between minor depression and a family history of psychiatric disorders. In an attempt to more thoroughly utilize the data that would be gathered in this study, we decided that a mixed enough regression model would be more powerful than a standard analysis of variance of statistical approach. However, since the random regression model is not as accepted in psychiatric literature, we specified in the initial data analysis plan that both types of analyses be performed. A third aspect of this study was the evaluation of the categorical end point (ie, full remission of symptoms and return of functioning), as well as the parametric end points. One can use the design of this trial in minor depression to address a number of the challenges that we had earlier identified. This trial is a good example of the type of consensus thinking process that can be used to enhance diagnostic rigor and assessment of severity of illness.

Table 3 Multivariable predictive model Performance of the model

Table 3 Multivariable predictive model Performance of the model The model showed good discrimination, with a c-statistics of 0.71. It demonstrated good calibration graphically and after evaluation with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (Figure ​(Figure11). Figure 1 Calibration of final

model. Internal validation We did not find evidence of a significant overoptimism in our model development. The overoptimism for the c-statistic with the bootstrapping procedure was 0.15%. Clinical risk score Individual risk scores can be calculated from Table ​Table44 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and are associated with a corresponding risk percentage (Table ​(Table5).5). For example, the risk of intracranial hemorrhage in a 55-year-old TBI patient with a GCS score of 12, reactive pupils, no major extracranial injury who presents 3 hours after injury would have a calculated risk score of 14 which corresponds with an 60-<65% Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Table 4 Estimation of the risk score of intracranial hemorrhage Table 5 Percentage risk of intracranial hemorrhage according to the risk score Discussion We have developed a Alectinib nmr prognostic model utilizing readily available clinical data to predict the risk of intracranial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hemorrhage in TBI patients from LMIC.

The model has demonstrated good discrimination, excellent calibration and has been internally validated. Advanced age, GCS, pupil reactivity, the presence of a major extracranial injury and time from injury to presentation were all found to be predictors for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). GCS demonstrated a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical linear relationship with increased risk for intracranial hemorrhage, except for those with a calculated score of three. This could be attributed to those patients that have been sedated and intubated prior to recording of GCS, as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these are given a score of three by default [27]. A linear relationship between advanced age and increased risk of poor outcome after TBI has been documented previously and was demonstrated in our study [24]. The increasing risk of hemorrhage with increasing time from injury to presentation may reflect the fact that slower bleeds are more likely to be detected at a later

scan and could have been missed in early imaging. This can also be attributed to prolong extrication times, which has been demonstrated to be associated with major injury [25]. Additionally the possibility of bias must be considered, as patients referred for more serious injury may be more likely to present with a bleed. Also a change in whatever neurological status or development of new clinical symptoms may prompt patients to seek delayed care after injury. This study has limitations. In order to explore the generalisability of a prognostic model to a similar patient population within a different setting, external validation is necessary [28]. However, we did not have access to data that contains the patient population and variables included in this study, so external validation was not possible.

Randomization If a patient is eligible for the trial the diagnost

Randomization If a patient is eligible for the trial the diagnostic imaging pathway for initial assessment in the trauma resuscitation room will be determined by randomization. The randomization will be performed immediately after inclusion at computers located in the trauma room of the participating hospitals. Randomization will be performed using a ‘one-click’ computer

program on a 1:1 basis per hospital with varying block sizes of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical trauma team will be directly informed on the outcome of the randomization so that imaging can be started. A standardized case record from (CRF) will be used. This CRF is totally web-based via a secured internet module. Sample size calculation and data analysis A previous study reported a reduction in mortality from 15% to 8.6% with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical total-body CT scanning as the single diagnostic procedure during trauma evaluation as compared to historical control data [29].

Analysis on the large German polytrauma registration database performed by Huber-Wagner et al. showed a significant reduction in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the 24-h mortality in patient who underwent immediate total-body CT compared to the conventional group (10% vs. 12%, P = 0.038) [25]. Historical AMC data show a mortality rate of 12% for trauma patients matching the current trial inclusion criteria. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Based on the combination

of the AMC data and the participation of the other trauma centers with comparable trauma populations, it is expected to find a reduction in mortality from 12% to 7%. The detection of such a difference requires 539 patients per group using a power of 80% and a two-sided alpha of 5%. Based on the historical and estimated data of the participating centers the inclusion selleck inhibitor period will take about 1,5 years and the follow-up period will take an additional year. The main analyses of primary and secondary outcomes will be conducted for all randomized patients according to the result of the randomization (intention-to-treat). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Data are expressed as percentages for categorical data, as mean and standard deviation (SD) for normally distributed numerical data and as median, range, and, where appropriate, inter-quartile range (IQR Mephenoxalone = 25 to 75%) for non-normally distributed numerical data. The following subgroups will be used for subgroup analysis: – multitrauma patients (defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) >/=16); – severe traumatic brain injury patients (defined as admission Glasgow Coma; Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 and an Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS)-head of ≥ 3); – penetrating versus blunt trauma. A p-value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. If appropriate, predictive values between variables are calculated.

Over the past three decades, the field ol biomedical engineering

Over the past three decades, the field ol biomedical engineering has infused the clinical neurosciences with powerful neuroimaging instruments equipped to study directly morphological and functional properties of the aging

brain in vivo. Advances in the acquisition, visualization, and analysis of neuroimaging data selleck compound continue to evolve rapidly, with ongoing development of hardware, software, and conceptual statistical approaches that have already made tremendous scientific contributions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular can be used Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to examine macrostructural changes-gross differences in tissue volume that reflect volume variability, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical parenchymal atrophy, or frank pathology (eg, large-vessel inlarct, tumor); or microstructural changes-fiber tract integrity and pathology that can be altered due to subtle changes in myelin-associated pathology. Several studies have highlighted the importance of gross structural or volumetric

changes in cognitive aging and dementia (for example, see refs 7-11; see ref 12 for review). Small-vessel cerebrovascular disease, visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has emerged as a particularly strong correlate of cognitive aging (for review, see ref 13) and is the focus of our discussion here. Characterization and quantification of white matter hyperintensities White matter hyperintensities, sometimes referred to as leukoaraiosis or leukoencephalopathy, are areas of increased lucency visualized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on T2-weighted images. They have enjoyed a rich, albeit capricious, history in clinical practice and in the aging literature, at points considered incidental with little clinical significance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and at points considered a central source of cognitive, motoric, and emotional dysfunction. Initially, WMH were described as “unidentifiable bright objects,” confounding radiologists as either artifact ual or adventitious companions of aging. Indeed, chronological age is the strongest correlate of WMH severity14-16 and

most older adults have some degree of WMH burden. (Figure 1) displays Chlormezanone a typical example of distributed WMH and (Figure 2) shows examples of two elderly individuals, one with mild WMH and one with more severe WMH reconstructed in three dimensions. White matter hyperintensities usually appear in the white matter confluent to the lateral ventricles (ie, “periventricular” WMH), often projecting deep into cortical white matter and grey matter nuclei (ie, “deep” WMH), or as circumscribed punctate spheres in deep cortical tissue. Of note, punctate WMH often appear as isolated lesions on two-dimensional MRI axial slices, but with three-dimensional reconstruction it often becomes evident that they are contained within the same process stemming off the lateral ventricles. Figure 1.

The mother, required to adjust to a biological clock of her infan

The mother, required to adjust to a biological clock of her infant that differs markedly from her own, becomes tired, frustrated, and angry, causing the infant to respond accordingly The resulting emotional burden, carried by both parties, might jeopardize the attachment processes, thus affecting future prospects of personal and social relationships Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the child. At later stages of life, such a child has

difficulties following the school timetable of activities, fails to obtain a sufficient amount of sleep at night, loses concentration during the morning and early afternoon hours, and, eventually, falls behind other children in school Frequently, the abnormal sleep-wake cycle of individuals with CRSDs and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical accompanying dysfunction at school or work are misattributed by parents, educators, psychologists, and other health care professionals to psychological rather than biological factors, such as laziness and low motivation. This attitude toward individuals with CRSDs, to which they are subjected since the early childhood Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or adolescence, adds psychological distress to the practical difficulties of coping with life and contributes to the development of personality disorders.2,53,56 CRSDs ami psychoactive medication Several cases of disrupted sleep-wake schedule as an latrogenie effect of psychoactive drugs

have been documented in the literature. Treatment with a typical neuroleptic, haloperldol,

in a patient with chronic schizophrenia was associated with an irregular sleep-wake cycle. Switching treatment to the atypical selleck compound neuroleptic clozapine established a more Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical organized and stable sleep-wake pattern and improved the clinical state of the patient.58 To further explore the relationship between type of drug and restactivity patterns, seven additional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients with schizophrenla were studied. Four of these patients received typical neuroleptics (flupentixol or haloperldol) and showed a variety of abnormalities in the daily rest-activity rhythm, eg, delayed circadlan phase syndrome, free-running sleepwake syndrome, and irregular sleep-wake pattern with a clrcabidlan component (approximately tuclazepam 48 h). On the other hand, rest-activity cycles of those patients treated with atypical neuroleptic clozapine (three patients) were highly organized and synchronized with the environmental schedule.59 Similar effects were observed in a female patient with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease: when treated with haloperldol, her rest-activity patterns became completely arrhythmic; this was accompanied by marked worsening of the cognitive state. When haloperldol was replaced by clozapine, rapid normalization of the sleep-wake cycle occurred and cognitive functioning improved.

The Beck Depression Inventory

The Beck Depression Invent

The Beck Depression Inventory

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a widely used 21-item self-report measure, which assesses cognitive/affective and somatic symptoms of depression [15]. The scale is based on statements rated by the respondent (range 0-3) according to the intensity experienced during the past two weeks. Due to ethical reasons item 21, which pertains to sexuality, was omitted from the scale in this questionnaire as the respondents had just suffered spousal loss and pilot testing showed that the question was considered offensive by the respondents. Depression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rates were not calculated in this study and the omission of item 21 did not pose a problem to the analyses. Single items The questionnaire contained three Likert-type single item questions on distress and meaning experienced in relation to the death of the relative. These questions were inspired by the literature on risk factors. The Likert-scale ranged from 1-7 (1 = not at all and 7 = a lot). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The cut point for these questions was set to five or more based on a symptom criterion. The questions were: A. How much distress did you experience in relation to your relative dying? B. Even in times of

hardship, like while my relative was dying, I feel a sense Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of meaning in my life? C. Even while my relative was dying, I felt a sense of purpose in my life? Data Analysis Data analysis was performed using STATA 10.1. Answers at T1 were analyzed to explore their association with answers on the ICG-R at T2, six months post loss. Six months post loss was considered a relevant point in time for analysis in a clinical setting within primary care to ensure early detection, and for the sake of simplicity analysis of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical data at 13 and 18 months post loss were left out of this study.

Expectation Maximization algorithm was performed to estimate missing answers on subscales with less than 15% missing answers to allow the calculation of total scores [23]. Scores for the single items B and C were reversed in the process of data analysis so a higher score Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Org 27569 denominated more distress. SRT1720 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for all scales and items on the data set and measured against the scores on ICG at six months post loss. ROC curves plot sensitivity (true positive ratio) by 1-specificity (true negative ratio) for a series of cut off points established by the scale or responses to the single items [24]. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) represents an overall measurement of performance of the test, with 1.0 as a perfect test and 0.5 representing a test with no discriminating capacity. Only scales and items with an AUC > 0.65 were selected for further analysis. The “optimal” cut off points for the scales were set on basis of ROC curve analysis where sensitivity and specificity curves cross on the graph.

15 AvE: 7 C-ECT practice: 42% (11 of 26) institutions given for s

15 AvE: 7 C-ECT practice: 42% (11 of 26) institutions given for six to nine months to prevent relapse A-ECT and C-ECT are practiced 94% unmodified Devices: 46% MECTA Spectrum, MECTA SR-1, or Thymatron DGxn, 8% two brands 35% Ectonus 5A, Ectonustim, Ectron, Medcraft B-25, and Siemens konvulasor 11% unknown Type: 42% brief pulse 12% sine wave 46% unknown Placement: All BL Asia, Pacific Region (L) 3715 Little JD (Little 2003) Study: Survey by mail to practitioners attending first Asian pacific ECT conference and 3361 brochures sent

out by automatic mailing system to countries in Asia Pacific Region. Contact addresses for 23 of 34 countries identified. N= 12 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical responses from practitioners having practiced in 12 countries N= Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical approximately 668 patients ECT treated N= approximately 2257 inpatients Date: 2000 Time span: One year Diagnoses: 68% schizophrenia 18% mania 4% depression

Other: Data from countries Fiji Kiribati, Malaysia (USM), Malaysia (Sabah), Nepal Palau, Philippines, Solomon Island, and Thailand. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ECT not available: Brunei, Cambodia, Micronesia, Palau Side effects: (reported not common), memory impairment most commonly reported Outcome: Response rate to ECT approximately 86% Other: No ECT services in Brunei, Cambodia, Micronesia and Palau Other: Indicates large variation in practice in Asia Pacific Region. Attitudes: Cultural attitude generally negative, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical except for the Philippines where ECT was generally well accepted iP: Varied from 1% to 9%, except for Nepal 26% Modified Devices: Thymatron in Malaysia and Thailand Mecta in Nepal and Thailand Ectonus series 5B in Sabah (a state of Malaysia) Type: All brief-pulse wave, except sine wave in Kiribati and Solomon Islands Placement: BL preferred Asia (L) 561 Chanpattana

W (Chanpattana et al. 2010) Study: Survey (29 item) questionnaire of ECT-treated patients to psychiatric treatment facilities and countries in Asia N= 977 psychiatric Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical facilities (334 responded, response rate 34%), N= 45 countries in Asia (Russia excluded) Florfenicol (29 responded, response rate 64%) N= 23 of 29 (79%) countries provided ECT in 257 institutions N= 39,875 patients who received N= 240,314 ECTs Diagnoses: 42% schizophrenia 32% major depression 14% mania 7% catatonia 2% drug abuse 2% dysthymia 1% other Gender: 38% women Age, year groups: 6%, <18 29%, 18–24 44%, 25–44 17%, 45–64 4%, >64 Countries (N= 23) in survey with ECT practice: Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka Thailand, Turkey, Small molecule library screening United Arab Emirates, Vietnam Countries (N= 6) in survey without ECT practice: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Georgia, Laos, and Lebanon AvE: 7 [N= 129,906 unmodified ECTs administered to N= 22,194 patients (55.

All had normal or corrected-to-normal vision None had a history

All had normal or corrected-to-normal vision. None had a history of neurological or psychiatric disease. All participants gave informed consent after the experimental procedure was explained and were paid for participation. This study was approved by the research ethical committee of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Eighteen of the 36 subjects (8 females and 10 males, mean age = 26.3 ± 4.6 years, age range: 21–41 years) were assigned pseudo-randomly to ABT-737 clinical trial Experiment 1 (semantic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical categorization) and the remaining 18 subjects (9 females and 9 males, mean age = 26.6 ±

5.2 years, age range: 21–38 years) were assigned to Experiment 2 (silently thinking about a word’s meaning). None of the subjects participating in Experiment 2 took part in Experiment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1. Stimuli Critical items were 60 morphologically simplex concrete German nouns of the open class category. These items

were adapted from a previous fMRI study of the neural representation of the bilingual mental lexicon (Isel et al. 2010). Half of the words (n = 30) referred to natural entities (e.g., Fruchtfruit), whereas the other half (n = 30) referred to manmade entities (e.g., Koffersuitcase). The mean age Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of acquisition (AoA) of the critical words was 2.7 years (±0.1) for the 30 natural concrete nouns and 3.3 years (±0.1) for the 30 manmade concrete nouns. Target words were matched for word frequency (mean word frequency: natural nouns = 34 [SEM = 7.9], manmade nouns = Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 22 [SEM = 5.9]; CELEX database, Baayen et al. 1995), word length (mean word length: natural nouns = 5.4 letters [SEM = 0.2], manmade nouns = 5.8 letters [SEM = 0.2]) as well as for concreteness and imageability (MRC Psycholinguistics database, Coltheart 1981). Prime words in the related and

unrelated conditions were matched for frequency (mean word frequency: related condition = 28 [SEM = 6.8], unrelated = 31 [SEM = 7.3]; CELEX database, Baayen et al. 1995). In the related condition, prime–target word pairs were associatively related and therefore were matched for associative strength2 (mean association strength: natural nouns = 39.7% [SEM = 2.9%], manmade nouns: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 42.1% [SEM = 2.3%]). In the unrelated condition, prime and target Digestive enzyme words did not present either a phonological/orthographic, morphological, or semantic/associative link. Finally, in both the related and unrelated conditions, natural noun targets were primed by natural nouns whereas manmade noun targets were primed by manmade nouns. Table ​Table11 displays examples of word pairs in the related and unrelated conditions. Table 1 Examples of word pairs in the related and unrelated conditions In addition, we selected 420 filler pairs (300 word–word pairs, 60 “blank screen”–word pairs [12.5%; neutral condition], and 60 symbol pairs [12.5%]). Among the 300 word–word pairs, half of them were constituted of two natural nouns, whereas the other half was constituted of two manmade nouns.