Results showed that, with the standard bSSFP acquisition, optimum

Results showed that, with the standard bSSFP acquisition, optimum bSSFP blood oxygen level dependent contrast could be obtained at pulse repetition times = 6.0 ms and flip angle = 70 degrees. Additional technical improvements that preserve the image quality may be necessary to further increase the myocardial bSSFP blood oxygen level dependent sensitivity at 1.5 T through even longer pulse repetition times. Magn Reson Med 63:484 493, 2010. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Descriptions of five new species of the genus Dinotrema with smooth or only medially sculptured selleck kinase inhibitor propodeum and

presence of mesoscutal pit from Spain are given: Dinotrema belokobylskiji sp. nov., D. marezim sp. nov., D. paquitae sp. nov., D. pareum sp. nov., and D. zimmermannae sp. nov..”
“The aim of the present paper was to study the throughput capacity (i.e. the ability of straw to drain through slatted flooring) of 15 kg of chopped straw used around the time of farrowing. A cohort study including 96 sows was conducted in two screening assay commercial herds, comparing chopped wheat straw of three length categories (mass median length 39, 70 and 130 mm). Straw with

short and medium chop lengths was completely absent in 83% (plastic slats) and 85% (cast-iron slats), respectively, of the pens on Day 4 after farrowing, compared to 7% and 6% of pens provided with the longest straw category. We conclude that it is technically feasible to have an efficient throughput of straw and to maintain good pen hygiene in partly slatted farrowing pens provided with 15 kg of chopped straw at farrowing. However, straw chop lengths need to be adjusted to the type of slatted flooring used.”
“We report here a preliminary model of the genetic architecture

of Autoimmune Thyroid Disorder (AITD). Using a flexible class of mathematical modeling techniques, applied to an established set of data and supplemented with information both from candidate-gene and genome-wide-association studies and from basic bioinformatics, we find strong statistical support for a model in which AITD is the result of “hits” along three selleck distinct genetic pathways: affected individuals have (1) a genetic susceptibility to clinical AITD, along with (2) a separate predisposition to develop the autoantibodies characteristic of AITD, and they also have (3) a predisposition to develop high levels of autoantibodies once they occur. Genes underlying each of these factors then appear to interact with one another to cause clinical AITD. We also find that a genetic variant in CTLA4 that increases risk for AITD in some people might actually protect against AITD in others, depending on which additional risk variants an individual carries. Our data show that the use of statistical methods for the incorporation of information from multiple sources, combined with careful modeling of distinct intermediate phenotypes, can provide insights into the genetic architecture of complex diseases.

On the basis of World Health Organization (WHO) reports among all

On the basis of World Health Organization (WHO) reports among all types of tumor malignant brain tumors are most dangerous tumor. Every year lot of individuals lost their life because of either misjudgement in analysis of tumor type in its early stage or unpredictable

tumor type at first sight. Proper identification for these tumors in their early stage is an extremely difficult clinical task that must depend upon information gathered through non-invasive ZD1839 techniques like biopsy and spectroscopy. In this paper a new hybrid feature extraction mechanism is proposed which help in classification of malignant tumors like Central Neuro Cytoma (CNC), Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), Gliomas, Intra Ventricular Malignant Mass, Metastasis in its early stage of development. The proposed feature extraction mechanism uses the shape and textural features for classification of malignant tumors. Among the extracted features, relevant features are identified using cumulative frequency based features selection mechanism. K-Nearest DMH1 concentration Neighbour (KNN), a supervised classification, algorithm is used for analysis of the results. For experimental purpose

150 brain tumors MR images are used having 30 images each for Central Neuro Cytoma, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Gliomas, Intra Ventricular Malignant Mass, Metastasis. The classification accuracy achieved for each type of malignant tumors are 90%, 93%, 93%, 90%, 93%. The overall accuracy achieved is nearly 92% for whole dataset of malignant brain MR images.”
“Background and Aims. The space environment could have impacts on a variety of characteristics of microorganism such as cell metabolism, drug resistance, and virulence. However, relevant mechanisms need to be clarified.

In the present study, the effect of a space Alvespimycin chemical structure environment on Escherichia coli was investigated. Methods. E. coli strains were sent to space for 398 h on the Shenzhou VIII and ground simulation was conducted as control. After the flight, a mutant strain LCT-EC67 was selected for further analysis. Results. Although no changes in hemolysis, morphology or antibiotic sensitivity were observed, the mutant strain showed elevated carbon source utilization compared with the control group. Genomic and proteomic analyses showed that 801 genes were upregulated and 825 genes were downregulated. In addition, 167 proteins were overexpressed and 92 proteins were downregulated using a cut-off fold-change value of 1.4 and a p smaller than 0.05. The changed proteins were associated with metabolic functions such as alanine and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and fatty acid and propanoate metabolism. Conclusions. E. coli showed alterations at gene and protein levels mainly regarding biochemical metabolism after spaceflight. (C) 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Background: The protective effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk might be mediated by sex hormone levels.

The experimental hypothesis that OX would be superior to MO in th

The experimental hypothesis that OX would be superior to MO in the clinical model of pancreatic cancer pain was not confirmed.”
“Nitrosative status has emerged as a key component Cell Cycle inhibitor in

plant response to abiotic stress; however, knowledge on its regulation by different environmental conditions remains unclear. The current study focused on nitrosative responses in citrus plants exposed to various abiotic stresses, including continuous light, continuous dark, heat, cold, drought and salinity. Morphological observations and physiological analysis showed that abiotic stress treatments were sensed by citrus plants. Furthermore, it was revealed that nitrosative networks are activated by environmental stress factors in citrus leaves as evidenced by increased nitrite (NO) content along with the release of NO and superoxide anion (O-2(center dot-)) in the vascular tissues. The expression of genes potentially involved in NO production, such as NR, AOX, NADHox, NADHde, PAD and DAO, was affected by the abiotic stress treatments demonstrating that NO-derived nitrosative responses could be regulated by various pathways. In addition, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and nitrate reductase (NR) gene expression and enzymatic activity displayed significant changes in response to adverse environmental conditions, particularly cold stress. Peroxynitrite (ONOO-)

scavenging ability of citrus plants was elicited by continuous light, dark or drought but was suppressed

by salinity. In contrast, nitration levels were elevated by salinity and suppressed by continuous light or dark. Finally, S-nitrosylation patterns were enhanced by heat, cold or drought but were suppressed by dark or salinity. These results suggest that the nitrosative response of citrus plants is differentially regulated depending on the stress type and underscore the importance of nitrosative status in plant stress physiology. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Study LGX818 Design. Retrospective retrieval analysis.\n\nObjective. To evaluate wear, deformation and biodegradation within retrieved polycarbonate urethane (PCU) components of Dynesys systems.\n\nSummary of Background Data. The Dynesys Dynamic Stabilization System (Zimmer Spine) consists of pedicle screws (Ti alloy), polycarbonate urethane (PCU) spacers, and a polyethylene-terephthalate cord. Methods. Seventeen retrieved (mean implantation: 2.5 years, range: 0.7-7.0 years) and 2 exemplar implant systems were available. Reasons for revision were persistent pain (16/17), infection (1/17), and/or screw loosening (11/17), with 1/17 case of implant migration. Optical microscopy, microCT, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate PCU spacer wear and deformation. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to assess spacer surface chemical composition.\n\nResults. Retrieved spacer components exhibited permanent bending deformation (mean: 4.

In multifactorial analyses, the ABCD2 score was unrelated to the

In multifactorial analyses, the ABCD2 score was unrelated to the risk of the primary outcome, but predicted the risk of incident stroke: score 4-5: hazard ratio (HR) 3.4 (95% CI 1.0 to 12); score 6-7: HR 4.8 (1.3 to 18). Of the components of the ABCD2 score, unilateral motor weakness predicted both the primary outcome ( HR 1.8 (1.2 to 2.8)) and stroke risk ( HR 4.2 (1.3 to 14)).\n\nConclusions: In patients P005091 clinical trial attending typical NHS

TIA services, the risk of incident stroke was relatively low, probably reflecting delays to assessment. Current provision of TIA services, where delayed presentation to “rapid access” TIA clinics is common, does not appear to provide an appropriate setting for urgent evaluation, risk stratification or timely secondary prevention for those who may be at highest risk.”
“Background. Efficacy and safety of an intensified dosing (ID) regimen of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS), which achieves higher mycophenolic acid exposure early posttransplantation, were evaluated in comparison with

a standard dosing (SD) regimen.\n\nMethods. In total, 128 de novo kidney transplant recipients treated with basiliximab induction, cyclosporine A, and steroids were randomized (1:1) to receive EC-MPS as SD (1440 mg/day; n = 65) or ID (days 0-14:2880 mg/day; days 15-42:2160 mg/day; followed by 1440 mg/day; n = 63). Efficacy parameters, safety, and tolerability were assessed over a 6-month study period. The primary endpoint was mean time to first occurrence of treatment failure.\n\nResults. Mean time to treatment failure was 130 days (95% confidence interval [CI]:81-n/a) find more in the ID group versus 114 days (95% CI: 15-155) in the SD group (P

= 0.36). Similar percentages (ID 30.2%; SD 36.9%) experienced treatment failure. Biopsy-proven acute rejection occurred in 2 (3.2%) ID versus 11 (16.9%) SD patients (P < 0.001). Three (2.3%) deaths (2 SD, 1 ID) and five (3.9%) graft losses (3 SD, 2 ID) occurred. Renal function, incidence of infection, and hematologic disorders were comparable in both study cohorts. Gastrointestinal disorders occurred in 51 (81.0%) ID and 49 (75.4%) SD patients with overall MLN2238 solubility dmso similar tolerability as assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale.\n\nConclusion. In this exploratory study, the EC-MPS ID regimen reduced the incidence of rejection and showed a comparable safety and tolerability profile to SD. Further examination of this approach in a larger patient cohort is now warranted to confirm these findings.”
“Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise.


no good solution to a dilemma in these medical eth


no good solution to a dilemma in these medical ethics exists. Our case presents split living liver donation for retransplantation in a mentally disabled girl, with few medical ethics principles at stake.”
“Understanding the disposition kinetics and the pattern of metabolism is critical to optimise the flukicidal activity of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in ruminants. TCBZ is metabolised by both flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) and cytochrome P450 (P450) in the liver. Interference with these metabolic pathways may be useful KPT-8602 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor to increase the systemic availabilities of TCBZ metabolites, which may improve the efficacy against Fasciola hepatica. The plasma disposition of TCBZ metabolites was evaluated following TCBZ co-administration with FMO [methimazole (MTZ)] and P450 [piperonyl butoxyde (PB) and ketoconazole (KTZ)] inhibitors in sheep. Twenty (20) healthy Corriedale x Merino weaned female lambs were randomly

allocated into four experimental groups. Animals of each group were treated as follow: Group A, TCBZ alone (5 mg/kg, IV route); Group B, TCBZ (5 mg/kg, IV) + MTZ (3 mg/kg, IV); Group C, TCBZ (5 mg/kg, IV) + PB (30 mg/kg, IV) and Group D, TCBZ (5 mg/kg, IV) + KTZ (10 mg/kg, orally). Blood samples were taken over 240 h post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone were the main metabolites recovered in plasma. MTZ did not affect TCBZ disposition kinetics. TCBZ sulphoxide this website Cmax values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) after the TCBZ + PB (62%) and TCBZ + KTZ (37%) treatments compared to those measured in the TCBZ alone treatment. TCBZ sulphoxide plasma AUCs were higher (P < 0.05) in the presence of both PB (99%) and KTZ (41%). Inhibition of TCBZ P450-mediated Fosbretabulin oxidation in the liver accounted for the increased systemic availability of its active metabolite TCBZ sulphoxide. This work contributes to the search

of different strategies to improve the use of this flukicidal drug in ruminants.”
“Introduction: Whooping cough is a re-emerging disease. We describe the investigation of an outbreak of whooping cough and the measures of control adopted.\n\nMethods: The event was reconstructed through a longitudinal study of incidence. In addition to the notified cases, an active search from the list of those who attended summer camps was made through telephone calls. An epidemiological survey was applied to all cases; vaccination history was confirmed with computerised clinical history and the obtaining of samples for analytical confirmation was 4 proposed. The description of the outbreak was made through the epidemic curve, the attack rates, the relative risk and the linear trend by ages and the vaccination coverage.\n\nResults: Of the 30 cases that appeared, 22 (73.3%) were among the members of the summer camps. In these, the attack rate was 21.8%, 26.7% among the children and adolescents increasing linearly with the age. The large majority (86.

6% of patients Completion rates for all guideline-recommended

6% of patients. Completion rates for all guideline-recommended

Stem Cell Compound Library evaluations were 17.4% in the commercially insured sample and 18.5% in the Medicare cohort in 2007. Evaluation rates increased over time. Blood tests assessing thyroid function were documented for approximately one-third of patients in each cohort. Increasing the observation period to 1 year before through 3 months after the AF diagnosis markedly increased completion rates, but rates of thyroid function testing remained low (50%60%). There were minor differences in evaluation completeness by sex, race, and geographic region. Conclusions: Differences in guideline-recommended evaluation rates by demographic characteristics after a new diagnosis of AF were of minor clinical importance. Basic evaluation had satisfactory completion rates; however, rates of laboratory testing were low. The contents of the manuscript

are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute or the National Institutes of Health. Damon M. Seils, MA, Duke University, selleck inhibitor provided editorial assistance and prepared the manuscript. Mr. Seils did not receive compensation for his assistance apart from his employment at the institution where the study was conducted. This work was supported by grants R01HL102214, RC1HL101056, R01HL068986, R01HL092577, and T32HL007- 902 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr. Sinner was supported by the German Heart Foundation. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts

of interest to disclose. Supporting Information may be found in the online version 4SC-202 clinical trial of this article.”
“Chronic tinnitus is a brain network disorder with involvement of auditory and non-auditory areas. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporal cortex has been investigated for the treatment of tinnitus. Several small studies suggest that motor cortex excitability is altered in people with tinnitus. We retrospectively analysed data from 231 patients with chronic tinnitus and 120 healthy controls by pooling data from different studies. Variables of interest were resting motor threshold (RMT), short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intra-cortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). 118 patients were tested twice – before and after ten rTMS treatment sessions over the left temporal cortex. In tinnitus patients SICI and ICF were increased and CSP was shortened as compared to healthy controls. There was no group difference in RMT. Treatment related amelioration of tinnitus symptoms were correlated with normalisations in SICI. These findings confirm earlier studies of abnormal motor cortex excitability in tinnitus patients.

The short Euroqol-5 Dimensions performed as well as the longer he

The short Euroqol-5 Dimensions performed as well as the longer health-related quality of life instruments in covering the ICF and in responsiveness. The health-related quality of life instruments did not measure similar constructs as hypothesized, neither did pain measures. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis indices covered several components of the ICF often exhibiting a large responsiveness. Aerobic capacity had the largest responsiveness of all measures.\n\nConclusion: Many instruments are not highly correlated, although at face value they appear to measure the same construct, information also applying to content validity

and responsiveness. Results from this study can assist in choosing outcome measures in the clinic and in research.”
“Atrophy AZD1208 purchase PF-02341066 in vivo of the dentate nucleus is one of the major neuropathological changes

in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Neuroimaging studies demonstrated white matter (WM) degeneration in FRDA. In this study, we used advanced tractography techniques to quantitatively measure WM changes in the dentato-thalamic and dentato-rubral tracts, and correlated these changes with cognitive profiles of FRDA. We also analysed diffusivity changes of the thalamo-cortical tract to assess whether neurological degeneration of WM extends beyond the primary site of involvement in FRDA. Twelve genetically 123 proven individuals with FRDA and 14 controls were recruited. Sixty directions diffusion tensor images were acquired. The WM bundles from the dentate nucleus were estimated using a constrained spherical deconvolution method and the diffusivity characteristics measured. The Simon task was used to assess cognitive profile of FRDA. The dentato-rubral, dentato-thalamic and thalamo-cortical

tracts manifested significantly lower fractional anisotropy, higher mean diffusivity and increased Nirogacestat inhibitor radial diffusivity in FRDA compared with controls. There was no difference in axial diffusivity between the two groups. The mean and radial diffusivity of the dentato-rubral tract was positively correlated with choice reaction time, congruent reaction time, incongruent reaction time and Simon effect reaction time and negatively with the larger GAA repeat. Significant changes in diffusivity characteristics were observed in the dentato-thalamic and thalamo-cortical tracts, suggesting extensive WM degeneration and affected WM structures in FRDA. Correlation of WM changes in the dentato-rubral tract with the cognitive assessment suggested that this tract is an important contributor to cognitive disturbances in FRDA.”
“Adoptive transfer of antiviral T cells enhances immune reconstitution and decreases infectious complications after stem cell transplantation. Information on number and function of antiviral T cells in stem cell grafts is scarce.

Moreover, out of 103 completers, only 41 (39 8%) patients present

Moreover, out of 103 completers, only 41 (39.8%) patients presented no missing visits and 25 (24.3%) presented two absences. These patients did not differ in clinical and demographic characteristics; thus, absences were probably circumstantial (e.g., traffic congestion, personal obligations). ConclusionsAbsences during the acute tDCS treatment phase are common, which support the use of flexible schedules in future tDCS trials as to minimize attrition. Also, further studies should access whether higher number of absences can compromise optimal tDCS efficacy.”
“The objective of this study

was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from selleckchem 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds buy LB-100 (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher

in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers’ profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, selleck chemical combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition.”
“We present a new four dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the CN(X-2 Sigma(+))-(H)2 system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Potential energy was obtained

from the electronic structure calculations using a partially spin-restricted coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations method. The four atoms were described using the augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aug-cc-pVTZ) basis sets augmented with mid-bond functions for improved description of van der Waals interactions. The global minimum is characterized by the well depth of 121.36 cm(-1) for the linear CN center dot center dot center dot H-2 structure. The zero-order corrected dissociation energies D-0 are 27.73 cm(-1) and 38.75 cm(-1) for the complex with para-and ortho-H-2, respectively. These theoretical results obtained using our new PES are in excellent agreement with experimental values [Y. Chen and M. C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5171 (1998)].

Furthermore, we observed a synergistic upregulation of CXCL12 gen

Furthermore, we observed a synergistic upregulation of CXCL12 gene learn more expression and a synergistic increase in bFGF protein production

by preseeded MSC exposed to PBMC in pulsatile flow. These findings identify CXCL12 and bFGF as valuable targets for the development of safe and effective acellular instructive grafts for application in in situ cardiovascular regenerative therapies. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Spinal anesthesia with the local anesthetic lidocaine has come under scrutiny because it is associated with transient neurologic symptoms (TNS). Although TNS is not associated with either lidocaine concentration or dose, its incidence has never been examined with very small doses of hyperbaric spinal lidocaine in patients in the lithotomy position. We designed this study prospectively to compare the efficacy of low-dose 15 mg/ml with low-dose 20 mg/ml hyperbaric lidocaine in patients undergoing elective outpatient surgery in the lithotomy position.\n\nMethods: A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either 30 mg of 15 mg/ml or the same dose of 20 mg/ml hyperbaric GW4869 price lidocaine. Lidocaine density

at 37 degrees C is 1.0241 g/ml for the 15 mg/ml and 1.0260 g/ml for the 20 mg/ml solution. Patients were examined for motor block, sensory block, and block duration. Patients were contacted at 24, 48 and 72 h and questioned about their perceptions of pain after the spinal anesthesia with specific questions designed to diagnose TNS.\n\nResults: The spread of analgesia was the same with both solutions of lidocaine. Motor block was incomplete in all patients in both groups. TNS were not observed when low doses of both solutions of lidocaine with dextrose were used in these ambulatory patients in the lithotomy position.\n\nConclusion: Hyperbaric lidocaine results in rapid recovery from sensory block and motor blockade. It may have advantages for patients in a day-case setting. No patients complained of TNS after discharge.”
“As Escherichia coli (E. coli) is well defined

with respect to its genome and metabolism, it is a OICR-9429 Epigenetics inhibitor favored host organism for recombinant protein production. However, many processes for recombinant protein production run under suboptimal conditions caused by wrong or incomplete information from an improper screening procedure, because appropriate on-line monitoring systems are still lacking. In this study, the oxygen transfer rate (OTR), determined on-line in shake flasks by applying a respiration activity monitoring system (RAMOS) device, was used to characterize the metabolic state of the recombinant organisms. Sixteen clones of E. coli SCS1 with foreign gene sequences, encoding for different target proteins, were cultivated in an autoinduction medium, containing glucose, lactose, and glycerol, to identify relationships between respiration activity and target protein production.

vaginalis to adapt and survive in diverse environment Based on r

vaginalis to adapt and survive in diverse environment. Based on recent developments in the field, we review T. vaginalis structure, patho-mechanisms, parasitic virulence, and advances in diagnosis and therapeutics. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Transcriptomics analysis revealed that genes

involved in hepatic de novo 123 cholesterol synthesis were downregulated in fed HSL-null mice that had been on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo. This Androgen Receptor Antagonist solubility dmso finding prompted a further analysis of cholesterol metabolism in HSL-null mice, which was performed in fed and 16-h-fasted mice on a normal chow diet (ND) or HFD regimen. Plasma cholesterol was elevated in HSL-null mice, in all tested conditions, as a result of cholesterol enrichment of HDL and VLDL. Hepatic esterified cholesterol content and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mRNA and protein levels were increased in HSL-null mice regardless of the dietary regimen. selleck inhibitor Unsaturated fatty acid composition of hepatic triglycerides was modified in fasted HSL-null mice on ND and HFD. The increased ABCA1 expression had no major effect on cholesterol efflux from HSL-null mouse hepatocytes. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that HSL plays a critical

role in the hydrolysis of cytosolic cholesteryl esters and that increased levels of hepatic cholesteryl esters, due to lack of action of HSL in the liver, are the main mechanism underlying the imbalance in cholesterol metabolism in HSL-null mice.”
“Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 shedding is associated with increased risk for sexually acquiring HIV. Because Langerhans cells (LCs), the mucosal epithelium resident dendritic cells, are suspected to be one of the initial target cell types infected by HIV following sexual exposure, we examined whether and how HSV-2 affects HIV infection of LCs. Although relatively few HSV-2/HIV-coinfected LCs were detected, HSV-2 dramatically enhanced the HIV susceptibility of LCs within skin explants. HSV-2

stimulated epithelial cell production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including human beta defensins and LL-37. LL-37 strongly upregulated the expression of HIV receptors in monocyte-derived LCs (mLCs), thereby enhancing their HIV susceptibility. Culture supernatants of epithelial cells infected with HSV-2 enhanced HIV susceptibility in mLCs, and this effect was abrogated by blocking LL-37 production. These data suggest that HSV-2 enhances sexual transmission of HIV by increasing HIV susceptibility of LCs via epithelial cell production of LL-37.”
“Purpose: To assess the pharmacodynamic effects of nimotuzumab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody with intermediate affinity for the receptor, in skin and tumor tissues from head and neck cancer patients.