10.1364/OE.16.019649CrossRef 24. Tawara T, Omi H, Hozumi T, Kaji R, Adachi S, Gotoh H, Sogawa T: Population dynamics in epitaxial Er 2 O 3 thin films grown on Si (111). Appl Phys Lett
2013, 102:241918. 10.1063/1.4812294CrossRef 25. Omi H, Tawara T: Energy transfers between Er 3+ ions located at the two crystalographic sites of Er 2 O 3 grown on Si(111). p38 MAPK apoptosis Jap J Appl Phys 2012, 51:02BG07. 10.7567/JJAP.51.02BG07CrossRef 26. Lu YW, Julsgaard B, Christian Petersen M, Skougaard Jensen RV, Garm Pedersen T, Pedersen K, Larsen NA: Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 97:141903. 10.1063/1.3497076CrossRef 27. Talbot E, Larde R, Pareige P, Khomenkova L, Hijazi K, Gourbilleau F: Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica. Nanoscale Res Lett 2013, 8:39. 10.1186/1556-276X-8-39CrossRef 28. Shin JH, Lee M: Reducing optical losses and energy-transfer upconversion in Er x Y 2-x SiO 5 waveguides. IEEE Photonics Technol Letters 1801, 2013:25. 29. Miritello M, Cardile P, Lo Savio R, Priolo F: Energy transfer and enhanced 1.54 μm emission in erbium-ytterbium disilicate thin films. Optics Express 2011,19(21):20761. 10.1364/OE.19.020761CrossRef 30. Omi H, Tawara T, Tateishi M: Real-time selleck chemicals llc synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence
from erbium silicates on SiO 2 /Si substrates. AIP Adv 2012,2(1):012141. 10.1063/1.3687419CrossRef 31. Auzel F, Malta O: A scalar crystal field strength parameter for rare-earth ions: meaning and usefulness. J Phys 1983, 44:201. 10.1051/jphys:01983004402020100CrossRef 32. Antic-Fidancev E, Holsa J, Lastusaari M: Crystal field strength in C-type cubic rare earth oxides. J Alloys Compd 2002, 341:82–86. 10.1016/S0925-8388(02)00073-7CrossRef 33. Trabelsi I, Maâlej R, Dammak M, Lupei A, Kamoun M: Crystal field analysis of Er 3+ in Sc 2 O 3 transparent ceramics. J Lumin 2010, 130:927–931. 10.1016/j.jlumin.2010.02.004CrossRef Competing these interests The authors declare
that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions AN designed and fabricated the structure and carried out the experiments as well as the analyses. HO carried out the GIXD experiments and the analysis of data. TT carried out the PL measurements and the analysis of data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Electrospinning has been regarded as the most effective and versatile technology to produce nanofibrous nonwovens with controlled fiber morphology, dimensions, and functional components from various polymeric materials. Nanofibrous nonwovens have shown excellent porous properties and vast application potential in areas [1, 2] such as biomedical research , filtration , superhydrophobic surfaces [5, 6], energy conversion and storage [7, 8], reinforcement, sensors, and many others.