Authors’ contributions NAMB and MAA designed and performed the ex

Authors’ contributions NAMB and MAA designed and performed the experimental

work and explained the obtained results. NAMB wrote the paper. ME-N and HYK helped in writing of the paper and participated in the experimental work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide (http://​www.​who.​int/​mediacentre/​factsheets/​fs297/​en/​index.​html). Cancer control has therefore become a global health strategic focus. Treatment of malignant tumors traditionally involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery and radiation therapy are effective in addressing the local tumor; chemotherapy, however, carries severe toxicity

Vorinostat due to lipid solubility and high therapeutic doses Selleckchem Androgen Receptor Antagonist required for most cancers (>70%) [1]. With these therapeutic limitations, combination therapy has received close attention in the recent years. The addition of interferon (IFN) has become one of the most common additions to combination therapies. In 1957, Isaacs and Lindenman discovered a secreted factor that actively interferes with and inhibits viral replication in influenza virus-infected chick embryo cells. They named the secreted factor interferon (IFN) and further classified the compound as either type I or II [2]. IFN conveys resistance to virus infection, inhibits tumor cell growth, and modulates the immune response of the organism. With such broad activity, IFN has become one of the most actively explored topics of immunology, genetics, virology,

oncology, and molecular biology research [3]. Therefore, the development of cancer treatment programs aimed at tumor-specific molecular targets has become a focus of intense interest and research. Integrins are a family of cell adhesion Buspirone HCl receptors [4]. These receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane (TM) proteins containing two non-covalently associated α and β subunits. Integrins transmit bidirectional signals across the plasma membrane and regulate many biological functions, including cell differentiation, migration, growth, and survival. Integrins also play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis [5, 6]. Studies have shown that αvβ3 is highly expressed not only on the cell surface of osteosarcoma, neuroblastoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, glioblastoma, invasive melanoma, and other solid tumors but also on neovascular endothelial cells of all tumor tissue [7–9]. Studies have demonstrated that RGD peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic) can specifically bind and inhibit the activity of αvβ3 integrin [10–12]. Thus, RGD is not only effective as a drug for the treatment of tumors but can also be effective in the targeting of tumor-associated molecules. Nano-particles can provide tremendous advantages in drug and gene therapy [13].

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