00 in PayPal dollars. The protocol was approved by the Wake Forest University School of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Measures The Web-based College Drinking Survey was adapted from items used previously in the Harvard College Alcohol Survey (Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Moeykens, & Castillo, 1994), the Core Institute Drug and Alcohol Survey Bioactive compound (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the Youth Survey used in the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws Program (Preisser, Young, Zaccaro, & Wolfson, 2003; Wolfson et al., 2004), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Kolbe, 1990). The survey focused on alcohol and measured demographic variables, alcohol consumption behaviors, and consequences experienced from alcohol use.
It also assessed other health risk behaviors, including tobacco use and marijuana and other drug use. To characterize patterns of smoking, we focused on responses to questions about quantity and frequency of smoking, weekly patterns of smoking, and contexts in which students smoke. Demographics, other health risk behaviors, nicotine dependence, perceived health effects, and quit efficacy were examined as potential factors that might explain the heterogeneity in smoking patterns. These items are described in more detail below. Smoking behaviors. Using standard items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (CDC, 2006), we assessed the number of days smoked in the past month and the number of cigarettes smoked on smoking days in the past month.
Responses to the number of days smoked were as follows: 1 = 1�C2 days, 2 = 3�C5 days, 3 = 6�C9 days, 4 = 10�C19 days, 5 = 20�C29 days, and 6 = all 30 days. This variable was treated as an ordinal variable with categories 1�C6. The number of cigarettes smoked on smoking days had responses of 1 = 1 or less, 2 = 2�C5, 3 = 6�C10, and 4 = 11+. This variable also was treated as an ordinal variable AV-951 with categories 1�C4. In their study of daily patterns of smoking among college freshman, Colder et al. (2006) found a weekly cycle of smoking, such that the likelihood of smoking increased on Fridays and Saturdays. Therefore, we assessed how likely participants were to smoke on each day of the week. Response options included ��never,�� ��rarely,�� ��sometimes,�� ��often,�� and ��always.�� We created one variable for smoking on the weekend (defined as Friday and Saturday) and a second for weekday smoking (defined as Sunday through Thursday). Students reporting smoking sometimes, often, or always were contrasted with those reporting smoking never or rarely during these times of the week. Smoking contexts.