05). Figure 1 Numbers of L. pneumophila cells in mono and dual-species biofilms. Variation of the number of cells of L. pneumophila in mono-species biofilm quantified by the three different methods: curves represent the variation of total

cell number (black diamond), L. pneumophila hybridized with the PNA PLPEN620 probe (dark grey square) and cultivable L. pneumophila (light grey triangle); bars represent standard deviation (n = 3) (a). L. pneumophila PNA-positive numbers/total cells numbers ratio (dark grey bars) and cultivable L. pneumophila numbers/L. pneumophila PNA-positive numbers ratio (light grey bars) for the mono-species biofilm and dual-species biofilms of L. pneumophila and V. paradoxus (Dual-species 1), L. pneumophila and M. chelonae (Dual-species 2), L. pneumophila and Acidovorax sp. (Dual-species 3) and L. pneumophila buy VS-4718 Selleck CP673451 and Sphingomonas sp. (Dual-species 4); the ratio values were calculated using the average of the values OICR-9429 solubility dmso obtained for the six time point samples (b). For the experiments of L. pneumophila in dual-species it was observed that the numbers of L. pneumophila PNA-positive cells and cultivable L. pneumophila did not change significantly with time after the first day (P > 0.05). Table 1 presents the data obtained for the quantification of sessile cells,

giving the average values of the samples analyzed at all time points, for mono and dual-species biofilms. The data for the numbers of total cells, total PNA-positive L. pneumophila and cultivable Atezolizumab order L. pneumophila in mono and in dual species biofilms were similar (P > 0.95), except for the numbers of cultivable L. pneumophila when associated with Acidovorax sp. which were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Figure 1b shows the percentage of PNA-positive L. pneumophila in relation to SYTO 9 stained total cells; this was similar for both mono and dual-species biofilms (P = 1.000). This indicates that L. pneumophila adhere well to uPVC surfaces, either alone or in the presence of Variovorax paradoxus, M. chelonae, Acidovorax sp. And Sphingomonas sp., although the morphology of the biofilm appeared to be different for the mono or

dual-species (Figure 2a and 2b, respectively). The relationship between cultivable and L. pneumophila PNA-positive cells was higher (although not statistically significant, P > 0.95) for cells recovered from the L. pneumophila – M. chelonae biofilm while the numbers of cultivable L. pneumophila decreased five-fold when this pathogen was associated with Acidovorax sp. and almost four-fold when associated with Sphingomonas sp. Table 1 Average of the total number of cells, L. pneumophila PNA-positive, cultivable L. pneumophila and cultivable non-legionellae cell numbers in mono and dual-species biofilms obtained for all the time points sampled. Strain in biofilm Total cells × 10-7 (cells cm-2) PNA cells × 10-7 (cells cm-2) Cultivable L.