7-9 Their ex vivo monocyte responses to LPS are significantly

7-9 Their ex vivo monocyte responses to LPS are significantly

enhanced relative to controls and this LPS hyperresponsiveness can be reproduced in vitro by exposure of the human macrophage cell line MonoMac6 to ethanol for 6 days.10 The enhanced and sustained inflammatory response seen in AAH is, however, in complete contradistinction to the normal processing of portal endotoxin by the liver.11 The liver is normally subject to tonic endotoxin exposure by way of the portal vein and it is effective at clearing this endotoxin from the blood without an inflammatory response. The phenomenon of “endotoxin tolerance” thereby renders endotoxin-exposed Kupffer cells refractory to further LPS stimulation, maintaining an anti- rather than proinflammatory cytokine output.12 Selleckchem Fostamatinib It is therefore somewhat unexpected that the proinflammatory response to endotoxin in AAH should be so disproportionately high, particularly considering that it is the Kupffer cells themselves that are key to maintaining hepatic endotoxin tolerance.13 It has become increasingly clear, therefore, that the enhancement of cytokine gene expression and perpetuation of the inflammatory response

is the key event in the pathogenesis of AAH.14 Despite its clear importance for the pathogenesis of AAH, the mechanism for enhanced inflammatory cytokine release in this disease remains unclear. In this study we address the novel hypothesis that the enhanced inflammatory cytokine response results from the direct actions of ethanol itself on the final common pathway of cytokine gene transcriptional Compound Library manufacturer regulation by histone acetylation. In its untranscribed state DNA is tightly coiled around histone protein octamers and the resulting chromatin is compacted into a closed tertiary structure from which the histone tails protrude, but in which the DNA is inaccessible to polymerases

Akt inhibitor involved in gene transcription. Gene activation by transcription factors involves coactivator proteins with histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity that acetylate key lysine residues in the histone tails. The negatively charged acetyl groups cause a conformational change in chromatin that allows RNA polymerases access to the DNA, facilitating gene transcription. Termination of transcription is mediated through histone deacetylases (HDAC), which release free acetate and allow the chromatin to resume its closed, untranscribed conformation.15 Various HDACs are able to modulate inflammatory gene transcription, including class I and II HDACs, which can be recruited by transcriptional repressors such as the activated glucocorticoid receptor and class III HDACs, known as sirtuins (SIRT), which are active in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).16 Ethanol has been demonstrated to increase total histone acetylation in rat liver17 with increased HAT and reduced HDAC activity18 and separate investigations have established that both SIRT expression and activity can be inhibited by ethanol in the liver.

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