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“Interferon-beta TEW-7197 supplier (IFN-beta) is an established therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) However, the mode of action and the effect on oligodendrocytes are not yet clear. In this study, we examined the influence of an IFN-beta therapy on the proliferation and differentiation of primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) in mixed glial cultures Mixed glial cultures were incubated for 5 days in medium supplemented with 10% of sera from healthy controls, untreated MS patients and IFN-beta treated MS patients. Proliferation and differentiation of OPC were determined by immunocytochemistry. Proliferation of OPC was significantly inhibited
by sera from untreated MS patients compared to healthy controls, while this effect was almost completely reversed by serum from IFN-beta treated MS patients. No effect on OPC differentiation was observed. A prospective and longitudinal analysis of a second cohort of MS patients treated
with IFN-beta showed that the reversal of inhibition of OPC proliferation was evident after 12 months of treatment but not during the first 6 months Thus, our results suggest that IFN-beta treatment has the capacity to revert the inhibitory effect of serum from MS patients on OPC proliferation. It is currently not clear what this means for regenerative processes. PF-6463922 molecular weight (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved”
“Cocaine abuse continues to be a significant problem in the USA and elsewhere Cocaine is an indirect agonist for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with numerous potential downstream effects, including processes and signals associated with adult neurogenesis Since drug addiction is associated with brain plasticity, we hypothesized that cocaine exposure would alter cellular proliferation in two adult neurogenic regions (the subventricular and subgranular zones).
We used bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to track newly generated cells in the brains of adult mice after chronic cocaine or saline exposures No differences were found in selleck the number or migration patterns of BrdU-labeled cells in the forebrain neurogenic areas However, cocaine produced a significant increase in the number of hippocampal BrdU-labeled cells (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved”
“DNA polymerase gamma (POLG1) is coding for the catalytic subunit of the heterotrimeric mitochondrial DNA polymerase and involved in replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. In addition to its 5′ to 3′ polymerase activity. POLG1 has a 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity important in the repair process Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease (PD). Dopamine neurons, which degenerate in PD, are believed to be particularly susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction, which makes POLG1 a possible candidate gene for the disease. POLG1 has a polyglutamine tract (poly-Q) in the N-terminal, encoded by a CAG sequence in exon 2.