However, there is marked regional variation in the uptake of home

However, there is marked regional variation in the uptake of home haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) suggesting further scope for the expansion of these modalities. Methods:  Between 1 April and 5 August 2009, Australian nephrologists were invited to complete an online survey. Seventy-six questions were INK 128 asked covering characteristics of the dialysis units, responders’ experience, adequacy of facilities and support structures, attitudes to the use of home HD and PD and issues impeding the increased uptake of home dialysis. Results:  Completed surveys were received and analysed from 71 respondents; 27 from Heads of Units (35% response rate) and 44 (16%) from other nephrologists. There was strong agreement

that HD with long hours was advantageous

and that this was most easily accomplished in the home. PD was not considered to be an inferior therapy. A ‘PD first’ policy existed in 34% of Renal Units. The most commonly reported impediments to expanding home dialysis services were financial disadvantage for home HD patients, and lack of physical infrastructure for training, support and education. Areas of concern for expanding home dialysis programmes included psychiatry support, access to respite care and home visits, and lack of support from medical administration and government. The majority of nephrologists would recommend home dialysis to more patients if these impediments could be overcome. Conclusion:  This survey identified support from nephrologists for the expansion of home dialysis in Australia and highlighted important barriers to improving access to these therapies. “
“Aim:  selleckchem Autophagy is a cellular process of degradation of damaged cytoplasmic components and regulates cell death or proliferation. Unilateral

ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a model of progressive renal fibrosis in the obstructed kidney. And UUO is followed by compensatory cellular proliferation in the contralateral kidney. We investigate the role of autophagy 4��8C in the obstructed kidney and contralateral kidney after UUO. Methods:  To obtain the evidence and the patterns of autophagy during UUO, the rats were sacrificed 3, 7 and 14 days after UUO. To examine the efficacy of the autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal injection of 3-MA (30 mg/kg per day) for 7 days. Results:  After UUO, autophagy was induced in the obstructed kidney in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA enhanced tubular cell apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney after UUO. In the contralateral kidney, autophagy was also induced and prolonged during UUO. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA increased the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen significantly in the contralateral kidney after UUO. The Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway was involved in the induction of autophagy after UUO in both kidneys.

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