Memory T-cell differentiation has been proposed to follow either

Memory T-cell differentiation has been proposed to follow either a linear or a divergent pathway. The major distinction between the two models relates to whether memory T cells arise from

the effector activation state in a linear fashion, or bypass the effector state altogether by diverging toward memory cell differentiation [35]. Our study presented here does not distinguish between the linear and divergent differentiation models [36-38]. However, it would be intriguing XL765 to speculate that Dlg1 may regulate asymmetric cell division [39] in a divergent model of memory T-cell differentiation [38]. Indeed more recently, it was shown that asymmetric division occurs during Ag rechallenge [40]. It is also not clear whether and how Dlg1 may regulate intracellular signaling in TCR-dependent or -independent mechanisms leading to memory T-cell differentiation. A selleck chemicals llc recent study suggested that TCR signaling in Ag-experienced T cells depends on Dlg1 as compared with Ag-naïve T cells. However, the role of this mechanism was not tested in the context of T-cell

memory generation [12]. In addition, it was observed that Dlg1 interacts with potassium channels and presumably regulates their function by retaining channel subunits at the plasma membrane [19]. Accordingly, the loss of potassium channel function results in reversion of Tem into Tcm [41], and may suppress the function of Tem [42]. Thus, Dlg1 could be involved in regulation of functional memory T-cell diversity by regulation of

potassium channel activity. Indeed Kv.1.3. KO mice were shown to have increased frequencies of Tcm and be partially resistant to EAE development and progression, which was explained by mechanisms related to either impaired effector memory T-cell functions and/or acquisition of Treg-cell phenotype [43]. Importantly, more recently it was observed that loss of Dlg1 in human L-NAME HCl Treg cells results in impaired function of this subset [44]. The latter is consistent with our observation of increased IL-2 cytokine production observed in Dlg1 KO mice after immunization. While further studies into the mechanism of Dlg1 in regulation of memory T-cell differentiation will be needed to address all unresolved issues, we show here for the first time that Dlg1 protein contributes to determination of functional memory T-cell diversity. Generation of the T cell-specific Dlg1 conditional KO mouse has been previously described [17]. Lck-Cre, Vav1-Cre, OT1, OT2, and HY mice were previously described [21-25]. All animal procedures were performed in accordance with institutional guidelines and approved by the Animal Studies Committee at Washington University School of Medicine. To determine Cre expression, the following primer set was used: 5′ ACCAGAGACGGAAATCCATCG 3′ and 5′ CCACGACCAAGTGACAGCAATG 3′. To analyze deletion of the floxed allele in lymphoid cells, the following set of primers was used: 5′ ATGCTGACTGGAAGGACTGC 3′ and 5′ TCAGAGACCACAAGAGGC 3′.

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