Methods: Nurses were randomly assigned to the experimental or con

Methods: Nurses were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group, and those in the former group had undergone CS training program. Nurses in both groups were then requested to support patients informed of their cancer diagnosis. Intervention consisted of one-on-one nurse interviews 3 times (on the day, 1 week, and I month after diagnosis). Patient’s self-reported distress according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression CA-4948 Scale and nurse’s

ratings of patient distress by Visual Analog Scale were assessed 3 times (I week, I month, and 3 months after diagnosis). These two scales were compared between the nurses of the two groups to assess the impact of CS training.

Results: The nurses in the experimental and control groups supported 42 and 47 patients, respectively. The analysis using mixed-effects modeling revealed no significant differences in the nurse’s ability to detect patient’s distress between ZD1839 ic50 the two groups. However, when the nurse’s ratings of patient’s distress and patient’s self-reported distress were compared, these two scores were significantly correlated only with

the nurses in the experimental group, suggesting that the nurse’s ability to become aware of patient’s distress had been improved in that group.

Conclusions: CS training for health professionals is useful in oncology practice to improve nurse’s ability to recognize the distress of patients diagnosed with cancer. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against

two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1, 2, … , 5% w/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly reduced the fungal biomass. There were reductions in the ranges 82-88%, 88-96% and 83-96% in the biomass of A. alternata strains due to different concentrations of the leaf extracts of S. cumini, A. indica and M. azedarach, respectively. Methanolic extract of M. azedarach was subjected to further fractionation using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively in the order of increasing polarity. Aqueous and n-butanol fractions gave promising results in the significant decrease in fungal biomass. This study concludes that aqueous and n-butanol fractions of methanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach can be used as biofungicides for the management of A. alternata.”
“AimThe aim of this study was to underscore problems associated with the dipstick test and determination of protein concentration alone in spot-urine (P-test) compared with spot-urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (P/Cr test) and to determine whether urine collection for 24-h test was complete.

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