Most species of macroalgae demonstrated noticeably higher instanc

Most species of macroalgae demonstrated noticeably higher instances of endophyte coverage, epiphytic diversity, and diatom colonization in consumer-free mesocosms than in the presence of amphipods. These data suggest that macroalgae along the western Antarctic Peninsula rely on grazers to control populations of potentially

harmful epiphytes. We hypothesize that the chemically defended macroalgal flora lives in mutualism with high densities of mesograzers, providing amphipods with shelter from predation while continually being cleaned of potentially harmful endo/epiphytes. “
“The photosynthetic euglenoid genus Phacus is commonly found in freshwater; it is characterized by a rigid to semi-rigid cell, usually flat with numerous small discoid chloroplasts without pyrenoids. To understand the phylogenetic relationships Vismodegib molecular weight among Phacus species, we used combined cytoplasmic

SSU and LSU rDNA and plastid-encoded SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data from 82 strains, including seven Lepocinclis, three Discoplastis, one Eutreptia, and two Eutreptiella strains, as well as morphological data. The combined molecular dataset was analyzed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods. The resulting tree revealed that the genus Phacus was not monophyletic and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among eight lineages that were congruent with unique morphological characters in each clade. Molecular phylogeny and detailed morphological data led to the descriptions of seven new species: P. brevisulca, P. claviformis, P. hordei-formis, P. longisulca, P. minimus, Stem Cell Compound Library solubility dmso P. paraorbicularis, and P. viridioryza. Levetiracetam The new species were well supported as independent species and formed close relationships with small Phacus species and P. orbicularis in the tree. In addition, the new species had unique molecular signatures and

showed high genetic diversity. Although the strains of P. orbicularis sensu Hübner were morphologically very similar, the phylogenetic analyses and genetic diversity suggested that P. orbicularis sensu Hübner should be divided into two subclades. “
“The photosynthetic euglenoid genus Cryptoglena is differentiated from other euglenoid genera by having a longitudinal sulcus, one chloroplast, two large trough-shaped paramylon plates positioned between the chloroplast and pellicle, and lack of metaboly. The genus contains only two species. To understand genetic diversity and taxonomy of Cryptoglena species, we analyzed molecular and morphological data from 25 strains. A combined data set of nuclear SSU and LSU and plastid SSU and LSU rRNA genes was analyzed using Bayesian, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and distance (neighbor joining) methods. Although morphological data of all strains showed no significant species-specific pattern, molecular data segregated the taxa into five clades, two of which represented previously known species: C. skujae and C.

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