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“Background As a novel class of two-dimensional carbon nanostructures, graphene oxide sheets (GOSs) have received considerable attention in recent years in the fields of plasmonics [1–3] and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors [4–11], following both experimental and theoretical scientific discoveries. GOSs have remarkable optical [12–19] and biosensing [20–28] properties and are expected to have a wide range of applications. A GOS has a high surface area and sp2 within an sp3 matrix that can confine π-electrons [12–14, 29]. GOSs contain oxygen at their surfaces in the form of epoxy (-O), hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), and ether functional groups on a carbon framework [30–35].