Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos
response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor e. g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.”
“Hirai DM, Copp SW, Holdsworth CT, Ferguson SK, Musch TI, Poole DC. Effects of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition on microvascular and contractile function in skeletal muscle of aged rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H1076-H1084, 2012. First published August 24, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00477.2012.-Advanced age is associated with derangements in skeletal muscle microvascular function during
the transition from rest to contractions. We tested the hypothesis that, contrary to what was reported previously in young rats, selective neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) inhibition would result in attenuated MDV3100 or absent alterations in skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation (PO2mv), which reflects the matching between muscle O-2 delivery and utilization, following the onset of contractions in old rats. Spinotrapezius muscle blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres), PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching), O-2 utilization ((V)over dot(O2); Fick calculation), and submaximal force production were measured at rest and following the onset of contractions in anesthetized old male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (27 to 28 mo) pre-
and postselective nNOS inhibition (2.1 mu mol/kg S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline; SMTC). At rest, SMTC had no effects on muscle blood flow (P > 0.05) but reduced (V)over dot(O2) by similar to 23% (P < 0.05), which elevated basal this website PO2mv by similar to 18% (P < 0.05). During contractions, steady-state muscle blood flow, (V)over dot(O2), PO2mv, and force production were not altered after SMTC (P > 0.05 for all). The overall PO2mv dynamics following onset of contractions was also unaffected by SMTC (mean response time: pre, 19.7 +/- 1.5; and post, 20.0 +/- 2.0 s; P > 0.05). These results indicate that the locus of nNOS-derived NO control in skeletal muscle depends on age and metabolic rate (i.e., rest vs. contractions). Alterations in nNOS-mediated regulation of contracting skeletal muscle microvascular function with aging may contribute to poor exercise capacity in this population.