Since the introduction of interferons in 1993, which were the fir

Since the introduction of interferons in 1993, which were the first registered treatments for MS, huge steps have been made in the field of MS immunotherapy. More efficious and specific immunoactive drugs have been introduced Quizartinib solubility dmso and it appears that the increased specificity for MS of these new treatments is paralleled by greater efficacy. Unfortunately, this seemingly increased efficacy has been accompanied by more safety issues. The immunotherapeutic

modalities can be divided into two main groups: those affecting the acute stages (relapses) of the disease and the long-term treatments that are aimed at preventing the appearance of relapses and the progression in disability. Immunomodulating treatments may also be classified according to the level of the ‘immune axis’ where they exert their main effect. Since, in MS, a neurodegenerative process runs in parallel and as a consequence of inflammation, early immune intervention is warranted to prevent progression of relapses of MS and the accumulation of disability. The use of neuroimaging (MRI)

techniques that allow the detection of silent inflammatory activity of MS and neurodegeneration has provided an important tool for the substantiation of the clinical efficacy of treatments and the early diagnosis of MS. This review summarizes in detail the existing information GSK461364 price on all the available immunotherapies for MS, old and new, classifies them according to their immunologic mechanisms of Z-VAD-FMK action and proposes a structured algorithm/therapeutic scheme for the management of

the disease.”
“The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure is now used routinely for the staging of clinically node-negative patients with early breast cancer. Two identification techniques exist: colorimetric and isotopic. These can be used alone or in combination. The combined method is associated with an increased identification rate. However, allergic and adverse reactions to blue dyes have been reported. The objective of this review was to determine the incidence of such events and to discuss alternative approaches.

The authors conducted a search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for reports of anaphylactic responses to isosulfan blue dye and patent blue V dye.

Allergic reaction to the dyes isosulfan blue and patent blue V is rare and the reported incidence varies between 0.07% and 2.7%. Methylene blue dye appears to be safer, with no cases of allergic events having been reported. However, allergy tests in some patients have proven that there is cross-reactivity between isosulfan blue dye and methylene blue dye.

Even though the risk of an anaphylactic response is low, this raises questions about the usefulness of colorimetric detection of SLN and whether alternatives to the use of the isosulfan and patent blue V dyes, such as methylene blue, exist. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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