SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in genital mucosa expressed high levels of CXCR3 and CCR5 relative to expression in peripheral blood. The results presented here demonstrate a significant Belinostat ic50 enrichment of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the genital mucosa of infected female macaques and that inflammatory chemokines and their receptors play a role in directing
cells to these tissues. SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were evaluated in blood, genital mucosa, and secondary lymphoid organs of seven female SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques at necropsy using techniques similar to those previously published by our group.10–13 All the monkeys studied were positive for the Mamu-A*01 class I MHC allele, allowing the use of Gag181–189/Mamu-A*01 tetramers for detection of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells by flow selleck chemicals llc cytometry. SIV-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in lymphocytes isolated from cervical and vaginal mucosae of all seven monkeys
at frequencies between 3- and 30-fold higher than those found in peripheral blood (mean enrichment = 12.7-fold for blood versus vagina or cervix; P = 0.018 blood versus vagina; P < 0.028 blood versus cervix, Wilcoxon signed rank test) (Table I). To determine whether the observed difference in the frequency of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in genital mucosa and blood was specific to tissues of the reproductive tract, lymphocytes isolated from intestinal mucosae, spleen, and lymph nodes of five monkeys infected with wild-type or attenuated SIV were analyzed for Gag tetramer-binding cells. The frequency of tetramer+ lymphocytes was found to be up to 20 times higher in secondary lymphoid and mucosal tissues than in peripheral blood of the same animal (Table I). However, the percentage of SIV-specific cells in these sites was quite similar within each animal, differing by just 1.5- to 3.3-fold. SIV-specific cells were increased
relative to blood in lymph nodes of all six monkeys, with an average fold enrichment of 5.6. In summary, all lymphoid and mucosal tissues examined were enriched in SIV-specific CD8+ T cells relative to peripheral blood. The high frequency of virus-specific CD8+ T cells found in genital mucosal tissues suggested Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase that a method for following these responses over time in living animals would be advantageous for non-human primate vaccine studies. We therefore developed a vaginal biopsy technique that permitted us to isolate a sufficient number of cells to perform serial tetramer analyses at 2–4 week intervals. Ten to 12 individual pinch biopsies were collected from individual animals at one time, yielding up to 3 million cells. Histological analysis of representative specimens demonstrated that the biopsies included tissue from epithelium and lamina propria with some variation among biopsies (data not shown).