Study design: A questionnaire was circulated electronically t

\n\nStudy design: A questionnaire was circulated electronically to gynaecological pathologists and surgeons. The results were collated and compared with the BMS-345541 manufacturer available literature on this subject.\n\nResults:

Our survey showed that the use of frozen sections varies with the resource setting and the preferences and practices of the practitioners. Frozen sections are most often used in diagnosis of ovarian/pelvic masses and assessment of lymph nodes in cervical carcinoma.\n\nConclusion: Frozen section diagnosis is of value in certain areas of gynaecological oncology, while it is of limited or no value in others. Each multidisciplinary team should develop their own local protocols for intraoperative frozen section examination and

support developing expertise in frozen section diagnosis in the adopted areas of the practice. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Despite the fact that categories are often composed of correlated features, the evidence that people detect and use these correlations during intentional category learning has been overwhelmingly negative to date. Nonetheless, on other categorization tasks, such as feature prediction, people show evidence of correlational sensitivity. A conventional explanation holds that category learning tasks promote rule use, which discards the correlated-feature GNS-1480 concentration information, whereas other types of category teaming tasks promote exemplar storage, which preserves correlated-feature information. Contrary to that common belief, the authors report 2 experiments that demonstrate that using probabilistic feedback in an intentional categorization BGJ398 manufacturer task leads to sensitivity to correlations among nondiagnostic cues. Deterministic feedback eliminates correlational sensitivity by focusing attention on relevant cues. Computational modeling reveals that exemplar storage coupled with selective attention is necessary to explain this effect.”
“There is a continuous flux of the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) from the circulation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain. The major metabolite of 27-OHC in the brain is 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoic

acid (7-HOCA). We confirm a recent report describing the presence of this metabolite in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at a relatively high concentration. A simple and accurate method was developed for assay of 7-HOCA in CSF based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry and use of H-2(4)-labeled internal standard. The concentration of this metabolite was found to be markedly increased in CSF from patients with a dysfunctional BBB. There was a high correlation between the levels of 7-HOCA in CSF and the CSF/serum albumin ratio. The concentration of 7-HOCA in CSF was not significantly affected by neurodegeneration. Our findings suggest that 7-HOCA could be used as a diagnostic marker for conditions with a dysfunctional BBB.

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