These results are generally consistent with previous studies in M

These results are generally consistent with previous studies in Mus, and suggest defeat stress also increases NAc dopamine signaling in females. However, these results do not explain our previous observations that defeat stress induces social withdrawal in female but not male California mice. Pharmacological manipulations provided more insights. When 500 ng of the D1 agonist SKF38393 was infused in the NAc shell of females that were naive to defeat, social interaction behavior was reduced. This same dose of SKF38393 had no effect in males, suggesting

that D1 receptor activation is sufficient to induce social withdrawal in females but not males. Intra-accumbens infusion of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 increased social approach behavior in females exposed Metabolism inhibitor to defeat but not in females naive to defeat. This result suggests that PKC412 mw D1 receptors are necessary for defeat-induced social withdrawal. Overall, our results suggest that sex differences in molecular pathways that are regulated by D1 receptors contribute to sex differences in social withdrawal behavior. (C) 2013

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Appropriate nomenclature of benign vascular tumors and tumor-like conditions is problematic due to overlapping histologic features, limited understanding of the pathogenesis, and controversy regarding classification. Benign vascular anomalies are categorized into malformations, neoplasms, reactive proliferations, or ectasias based on their clinical behavior, currently accepted etiologies, and histopathology. We address controversies in the classification of some entities and also discuss recent immunohistochemical developments that have raised questions regarding the origin of certain vascular tumors. This comprehensive review focuses on the clinical presentation, behavior, associated

conditions, selleck kinase inhibitor histopathological findings, and differential diagnoses of benign vascular tumors and tumor-like conditions. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We present the case of a 37-year-old patient diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) syndrome, as confirmed by genetic tests, who underwent the transplantation of a kidney from a cadaveric donor. MEN 2A, a hereditary autosomal dominant syndrome, is caused by the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene. In almost all patients this syndrome, is characterized by the occurrence of medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma; in some individuals also hyperparathyroidism. The available literature has not documented a kidney transplantation performed in Poland for this indication.”
“Background: Ankle valgus deformity secondary to proximal migration of the fibula following an Ilizarov tibial lengthening has not been discussed in detail in the literature.

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