“This study aims to evaluate this website the determinants of breakthrough infection after one dose of varicella vaccine. We designed a retrospective case-control study. Breakthrough cases were
children, aged 1-15, who presented varicella symptoms bigger than = 42 days after the first dose of varicella vaccine (breakthrough). Controls were children, aged 1-15 years, who attended the same class (in a school or in a kindergarten) than the cases in the year of the breakthrough onset; they received a dose of varicella vaccine bigger than = 42 days before the case rash onset and they did not develop varicella symptoms. We enrolled 45 cases and 135 controls. 40% of cases (n = 18; 95% CI = 25.4-54.6) presented at least one risk factor; this proportion was 39.2% (95% CI = 30.9-47.6) among the controls (chi-square = 0.0078; P = 0.93). Time between vaccination and virus exposure was longer among cases. Logistic regression showed that breakthrough disease was
associated with duration of time from vaccination.”
“Kit immunohistochemistry and confocal reconstructions have provided detailed 3-dimensional images of ICC networks throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Morphological criteria have been used to establish that different classes of ICC exist within the GI tract and physiological studies have shown that these classes have distinct physiological roles in GI motility. Structural studies have focused predominately on rodent models and less information is available on whether similar classes of ICC exist within the GI tracts
of humans or non-human primates. check details Using Kit immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging, we examined the 3-dimensional structure of ICC throughout the GI tract of cynomolgus monkeys. Whole or flat mounts and cryostat sections were used to examine ICC networks in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), stomach, small intestine and colon. Anti-histamine antibodies were used to distinguish ICC from mast cells in the lamina propria. Kit labeling identified complex networks of ICC populations throughout FK866 in vivo the non-human primate GI tract that have structural characteristics similar to that described for ICC populations in rodent models. ICC-MY formed anastomosing networks in the myenteric plexus region. ICC-IM were interposed between smooth muscle cells in the stomach and colon and were concentrated within the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP) of the intestine. ICC-SEP were found in septal regions of the antrum that separated circular muscle bundles. Spindle-shaped histamine(+) mast cells were found in the lamina propria throughout the GI tract. Since similar sub-populations of ICC exist within the GI tract of primates and rodents and the use of rodents to study the functional roles of different classes of ICC is warranted.