Thus, a neural relay, potentially involving muscarinic acetylchol

Thus, a neural relay, potentially involving muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, indirectly increases the effects of Xen on pancreatic polypeptide release in humans. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The hymenochirins are a family of cationic, amphipathic, alpha-helical host-defense peptides, first isolated from skin secretions of the Congo clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Pipidae). Of the four hymenochirins tested, hymenochirin-1B (IKLSPETKDNLKKVLKGAIKGAIVAKMV center dot NH2) shows the greatest cytotoxic potency against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma

A549 cells (LC50 = 2.5 +/- 0.2 mu M), breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells (LC50 = 9.0 +/- 03 mu M), colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells (LC50 = 9.7 +/- 0.2 mu M), and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells (LC50 = 22.5 +/- 1.4 mu M) with appreciably less hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC50 = 213 +/- 18 mu M). Structure-activity relationships were investigated by synthesizing analogs of hymenochirin-1B in which Pro(5), G1u(6) and Asp(9)on the hydrophilic face of the helix were replaced by one or more L-lysine or D-lysine DUB inhibitor residues. The [D9K] analog displays the greatest increase in potency against all

four cell lines (up to 6 fold) but hemolytic activity also increases (LC50 = 174 +/- 12 mu M). The [D9k] and [E6k,D9k] analogs retain relatively high cytotoxic potency against the tumor cells (LC50 in the range 2.1-21 mu M) but show reduced hemolytic activity (LC50 > 300 mu M). The data suggest that hymenochirin-1B has therapeutic potential as a template to generate potent, non-toxic anti-cancer agents. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism,

inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions find more (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions.

Methods: Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1.

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