Transgeneic mouse models of pancreas cancer expressing
high Etoposide price levels of IGF-1R showed increased invasive carcinomas and lymph node metastases (20). Targeting of IGF-1R expression by siRNAs achieved growth inhibition in many gastrointestinal malignancies, suggesting potential importance of the pathway in pancreas cancer (21)-(24). In concert, changing IGF-1R copy number by cDNA plasmid augmented mitogenic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical response in mouse embryo. Treatments with MoAb seemed to lead to IGF-1R internalization and degradation, and enhanced cytotoxic chemotherapy effects (25). DNA repair pathways are other downstream effectors of IGF-1R axis and provide the rationale for combining IGF-1R inhibitors with cytotoxics (30),(31). A number of agents targeting IGF-1R, both MoAbs and TKIs, are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been evaluated clinically and we are just starting to understand their clinical role and potential mechanisms of resistance to this class of drugs
(26). Anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibodies AMG-479 is a fully humanized MoAb that blocks the binding of IGF-I and IGF-II to IGF-1R (IC50 < 0.6 nmol/L), and does not cross-react with the insulin receptor (IR) (27). AMG-479 completely inhibited ligand-induced dimerization and activation of IGF-1R/IGF-1R and IGF-1R/IR in two pancreas cancer cell lines. The antibody reduced IGF-1R-mediated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical downstream Akt phosphorylation with pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the cancer cell lines. The agent demonstrated additive effects with gemcitabine in preclinical studies (27). In a randomized phase II trial, AMG-479 in combination with gemcitabine demonstrated a trend to improvement in median survival when compared to the placebo/gemcitabine control arm (8.7m vs 5.9m; HR 0.67, P=0.12) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in previously untreated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical metastatic pancreas cancer patients. The median PFS was 5.1 months and 2.1 months respectively (HR 0.65, P=0.07). The investigators conclude that there was sufficient efficacy signal to warrant
further evaluation in a phase III trial. IMC-A12 (cixutumumab) (29) and MK-0646 (dalotuzumab) are other anti-IGF-1R MoAb that are being evaluated in untreated metastatic pancreas cancer patients. MK-0646 enhanced gemcitabine induced apoptosis in preclinical studies and is being evaluated clinically. This phase I/II trial is enrolling patients to 3 treatment arms; A: gemcitabine 1000mg/m2 weekly × 3 with MK-0646 weekly × 4, Arm B: gemcitabine + MK-0646 + erlotinib 100mg daily, Arm C: gemcitabine 1000mg/m2 ADAMTS5 weekly × 3 + erlotinib 100mg daily. MK-0646 achieved 6 partial responses (PR), 1 hepatic complete response (CR) and 8 stable disease (SD) out of 22 patients (32). Grade 3 or dose-limiting toxicities were rare and included hypergylcemia, hepatic transaminitis, and febrile neutropenia. The demonstrated responses confirm the hypothesis of cross-talk between EGFR and IGF axis signaling and the importance of adding cytotoxic therapy.