We are also grateful to Rhys ‘Digger’ Hart for his sterling work in the field. Slater and Gordon Lawyers (Qld) are thanked for funding support to conduct the study. Thanks also go to Jerry Miller for his helpful SCH772984 suggestions for improvements to this manuscript. “
“Globally, the ecological function of stream ecosystems are increasingly affected directly and indirectly by human activities (Gleick, 2003, Mattson et al., 2009 and Stets et al., 2012). The quality and quantity of nutrient
and organic matter inputs to streams and the manner in which these resources are processed varies among watersheds with different agriculture, urban, wetland, and woodland influences (Mattson et al., 2009, Nelson et al., 1993 and Williams et al., 2010). Anthropogenic linked inputs to streams from distinct land use activities can have unique chemical signatures that diverge greatly from that of neighboring streams. For example, point-source acid-mine inputs can lower Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library stream pH and increase nutrient, dissolved metal, and metal oxide concentration from that of pristine alpine streams of Colorado, USA, which slow organic matter breakdown rates by macroinvertebrates but stimulate microbial respiration rates (Niyogi et al., 2001). Anthropogenic land use activities are also associated with higher nutrient loads, sedimentation rates,
and temperatures in streams than that measured in streams with predominantly natural land covers (Allan, 2004, Huang and Chen, 2009 and Williams et al., 2012). These landscape conditions can alter Meloxicam stream microbial activity, organic matter decomposition, and the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool (Huang and Chen, 2009, Wilson and Xenopoulos, 2009 and Williams et al., 2012). The magnitude and direction of the stream ecosystem response to specific anthropogenic activities is variable, however, and can depend on the quality of the upstream landscape. Golf course facilities are actively managed landscapes that can impact aquatic ecosystem function (Baris et al., 2010, Colding
et al., 2009 and Tanner and Gange, 2005). In 2005, the world golf course daily water demand was estimated to be 9.5 million cubic meters or roughly the basic water demand of 4.7 billion persons (Wheeler and Nauright, 2006). Individual 18-hole golf courses, numbering well over 35,000 worldwide, can apply nutrient fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides at levels up to seven times greater per hectare than that applied to typical intensive agricultural fields (Tanner and Gange, 2005 and Wheeler and Nauright, 2006). Evidence of golf course or turf grass chemical applications are frequently detected in nearby water bodies when compared to natural land cover systems (Baris et al., 2010, Kunimatsu et al., 1999, Mankin, 2000, Metcalfe et al., 2008 and Winter and Dillon, 2005).