With patient consent and under approval of the Institutional Revi

With patient consent and under approval of the Institutional Review Board, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 2 patients with gastric cancer undergoing treatment at the Tokyo Clinic and Research Institute. Cell lines (tumor 1 and tumor 2) were established from biopsies of metastatic gastric tumor lesions from

the respective patients. All tumor cell lines were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum, 1% Adriamycin molecular weight P/S and 1% Glutamax-1 (cRPMI). Ex-vivo NK cell expansion NK cells were expanded from PBMC as Selonsertib mouse previously described with some minor modifications [12]. In brief, PBMC (1.5 × 106) were incubated with irradiated (14,000 rad) K562-mbIL15-41BBL cells (106) in a 24-well tissue culture plate in the presence of 200 IU/ml human IL-2 (R&D Systems Inc) in cRPMI. Half of the culture medium was replaced every 2-3 days with fresh culture medium for the first 6 days. After 6 days of expansion,

cells were harvested, washed, counted and re-cultured at a starting cell density of 1 × 105-3 × 105/ml in T-25 or T-75 culture flasks in cRPMI supplemented with IL-2. Cells were expanded for and additional 8 days. Additional cRPMI was added to the flasks if necessary based on cell density. Flow Cytometry Cell surface expression was determined before and after 14 days of cell expansion by staining Staurosporine datasheet with directly conjugated mouse anti-human mAb’s against CD3, CD56, αβTCR, γδTCR, HLA class I, HLA-DR, Fas, Fas-ligand, KLRD1, NKG2a, KIR3DL1, ILT2, CD62L, KIR3DL2/3, NKG2d, DNAM-1, NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30 (BD Biosciences). Gates were set around NK cells which were defined as CD3-CD56+ cells. Surface expression of NK cell

ligands was determined on both autologous gastric tumor cell lines and included directly conjugated mouse anti-human nectin-2, PVR, MIC A/B, Fas, HLA class I, HLA class II, HLA-G and purified mouse anti-human HLA-E, ULPB-1, ULBP-2 and ULBP-3. For EGFR-mediated ADCC, gastric tumors were stained with mouse anti-human EGFR mAb. Mouse IgGs were used as isotype controls and purified mAbs were secondarily stained with FITC labelled goat anti-mouse mAb. A minimum of 10000 events were acquired using a BD™ LSR II flow cytometer. Data was analyzed with BD™ FACS DIVA Software. Cytotoxicity assays Cytolytic NK cell activity was measured by 4 PIK-5 hour chromium 51 (51Cr)-release assays as previously described [19]. K562 cells were included as target cells in all cytotoxicity assays to assess overall cytotoxicity performance (data not shown). Expanded day 14 cells were purified into separate populations of NK cells (CD3-CD56+) and NKT/T (CD3+CD56+/CD3+CD56-) cells using MACS human CD3 microbeads and non-expanded NK cells were purified from PBMC using a MACS human NK cell isolation kit. (Miltenyi Biotec Inc). Cell purity was determined to be >92% and 95% respectively. To determine ADCC, 10 μg/ml human IgG1 (huIgG1, Sigma-Aldrich Corp, St.

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